Female teachers and the rise of primary education in Italy and Spain, 1861–1921: evidence from a new dataset†

@article{Cappelli2021FemaleTA,
  title={Female teachers and the rise of primary education in Italy and Spain, 1861–1921: evidence from a new dataset†},
  author={Gabriele Cappelli and Gloria Quiroga Valle},
  journal={The Economic History Review},
  year={2021}
}
This article provides the first harmonized quantitative evidence on the rise of mass education across the provinces (today’s NUTS 3) of Italy and Spain in the period c . 1861–1921. Visual analysis of this new dataset suggests that an important factor linked to the expansion of schooling was the feminization of the teaching profession, something that has been largely neglected so far in quantitative historical studies of educational development. This hypothesis is put to the test using panel… 
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