Female sticklebacks use male coloration in mate choice and hence avoid parasitized males

@article{Milinski1990FemaleSU,
  title={Female sticklebacks use male coloration in mate choice and hence avoid parasitized males},
  author={Manfred Milinski and Theo C. M. Bakker},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1990},
  volume={344},
  pages={330-333}
}
AN important problem in evolutionary biology since the time of Darwin has been to understand why females preferentially mate with males handicapped by secondary sexual ornaments1–3. One hypothesis of sexual selection theory is that these ornaments reliably reveal the male's condition4–6, which can be affected for example by parasites4,7–13. Here we show that in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) the intensity of male red breeding coloration positively correlates with physical… 
Do male sticklebacks prefer females with red ornamentation
TLDR
The results show that red colour on the pelvic sp spine of female sticklebacks has value as a signal to males in this population, and males actually courted females with drab pelvic spines more than females whose pelvic spine had a redder hue, but only when illuminated by white light.
Male Mate Preference for Female Coloration in a Cyprinid Fish, Puntius titteya.
TLDR
It is suggested that males and females in this species mutually select each other based on red coloration, and males might obtain high quality mates and offspring by choosing females based on carotenoid-based coloration.
Male mate choice selects for female coloration in a fish
  • T. Amundsen, E. Forsgren
  • Biology, Psychology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2001
TLDR
Examination of mate-choice experiments with two-spotted gobies provides experimental evidence that males prefer ornamented females in a fish that is not sex-role reversed, supporting the hypothesis that female ornamentation is sexually selected.
Parasitized female guppies do not prefer showy males
TLDR
This work examines how the monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli reduces the sexual display and colour intensity of male guppies, Poecilia reticulata, which makes them less attractive to females and implies that sexual selection pressure for male showiness is diminished.
Male–male competition facilitates female choice in sticklebacks
  • U. Candolin
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1999
TLDR
The results show that male competition influences signal expression by increasing the difference between males in signalling level, which facilitates female choice and induces a preference for dominant males.
Mutual mate choice in sticklebacks: attractive males choose big females, which lay big eggs
TLDR
It is proposed that this can explain how brightness can be sexually selected in spite of brighter males not receiving more eggs, and in nature this preference for bigger females results in brighter males receiving on average heavier eggs.
Conspicuous Female Ornamentation and Tests of Male Mate Preference in Threespine Sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)
TLDR
Results presented here are the first to explicitly address male preference for female throat color in threespine sticklebacks and suggest that males can discriminate color and other aspects of phenotype in the authors' experiment and that males may use these traits in intrasexual interactions.
Sexual selection in an anadromous population of threespine sticklebacks — no role for parasites
TLDR
Although male colour may sometimes affect female choice in this system, this preference has probably not evolved because of the Hamilton—Zuk mechanism of sexual selection.
Male Red Ornamentation Is Associated with Female Red Sensitivity in Sticklebacks
TLDR
It is shown that the red color expression of fathers correlates well with their daughters' red sensitivity, indicating a proximate mechanism in terms of perceptual sensitivity being involved in the co-evolution of female preferences and male mating signals.
Sexual signaling in the European bitterling: females learn the truth by direct inspection of the resource
TLDR
It is shown that females of a freshwater fish, the European bitterling, Rhodeus sericeus, base their mate choice on multiple traits that differ in their reliability as indicators of expected reproductive success and are used at different stages of the decision process.
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