Female reproductive factors and open angle glaucoma: the Blue Mountains Eye Study.


AIMS To determine whether endogenous oestrogen exposures are associated with open angle glaucoma (OAG). METHODS The Blue Mountains Eye Study examined 2072 women aged 49-97 years during 1992-4. Questions about female reproductive factors included age at menarche and menopause, parity, and use of hormone replacement therapy. Applanation tonometry, visual field tests, and stereo-optic disc photographs were performed. OAG was diagnosed when glaucomatous visual fields matched optic disc changes. Ocular hypertension (OH) was defined in the absence of glaucoma, but with intraocular pressure >or=22 mm Hg. RESULTS A significantly increased OAG risk with later (>13 years) compared with earlier (<or=12 years) age of menarche was found, odds ratio (OR) = 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0 to 3.9, p for trend = 0.01, after adjustment for multiple confounders. Non-significant increased odds for OAG were found for early natural menopause (<45 years) compared with the reference group (>or=50 years), adjusted OR = 1.7; CI: 0.7 to 3.8, and for shorter duration of endogenous oestrogen exposure (<30 years), adjusted OR = 1.8; CI: 0.6 to 5.3. Increasing parity was associated with an increased risk of OAG (p = 0.03) and decreased risk of OH (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION The modest associations found in relation to late menarche and increased parity do not allow the exclusion of a possible role for endogenous female hormones in the pathogenesis of OAG.

Citations per Year

118 Citations

Semantic Scholar estimates that this publication has 118 citations based on the available data.

See our FAQ for additional information.

Cite this paper

@article{Lee2003FemaleRF, title={Female reproductive factors and open angle glaucoma: the Blue Mountains Eye Study.}, author={Anne J. Lee and Philip B. Mitchell and Elena Rochtchina and Paul R. Healey}, journal={The British journal of ophthalmology}, year={2003}, volume={87 11}, pages={1324-8} }