Female genital mutilation and obstetric outcome: WHO collaborative prospective study in six African countries

  title={Female genital mutilation and obstetric outcome: WHO collaborative prospective study in six African countries},
  author={Emily Banks and Olav Meirik and T. Farley and Oluwole Akande and Heli Bathija and Mohamed K Ali},
  journal={The Lancet},
BACKGROUND Reliable evidence about the effect of female genital mutilation (FGM) on obstetric outcome is scarce. This study examines the effect of different types of FGM on obstetric outcome. METHODS 28 393 women attending for singleton delivery between November, 2001, and March, 2003, at 28 obstetric centres in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal, and Sudan were examined before delivery to ascertain whether or not they had undergone FGM, and were classified according to the WHO… Expand
Are obstetric outcomes affected by female genital mutilation?
In this retrospective case–control study of consecutive pregnant women with FGM, FGM was not associated with an increased incidence of adverse obstetric and foetal morbidity or mortality. Expand
The impact of female genital mutilation/cutting on obstetric outcomes and its management.
  • Y. K. Akpak, I. Yilmaz
  • Medicine
  • The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians
  • 2020
It was seen that in the FGM/C group more emergency C-sections occurred, the second stage of the delivery was prolonged significantly, and episiotomy and periclitoral injuries were higher, and postpartum blood loss and hospitalization of the mother lasted longer in the B group. Expand
Prevalence and adverse obstetric outcomes of female genital mutilation among women in rural Northern Ghana.
Despite significant decline in prevalence of FGM, adverse obstetric outcomes are still high among affected women and increased public health education of circumcised women on these outcomes would help improve institutional deliveries and heighten awareness and prompt clinical decisions among healthcare workers. Expand
Obstetric outcomes for women with female genital mutilation at an Australian hospital, 2006–2012: a descriptive study
Women with FGM had similar obstetric outcomes to women without FGM in an Australian metropolitan hospital with expertise in FGM management, except for statistically significant higher risk of first and second degree perineal tears, and caesarean section. Expand
Obstetric Complications Due to Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) at N'Djamena Mother and Child Hospital (Chad)
Female genital mutilation is a common cultural practice in this country; it contributes to worsening maternal and fetal complications. Expand
Management of type III female genital mutilation in Birmingham, UK: a retrospective audit.
OBJECTIVES to audit clinical management of women with type III female genital mutilation (FGM) according to local guidelines. Secondary objectives were to describe the population that uses theExpand
Is female genital mutilation associated with eclampsia? Evidence from a nationally representative survey data
A possible association between infibulation and eclampsia is suggested, while the association was not significant in women with other categories of FGM. Expand
Female Genital Mutilation and Obstetric Outcomes in the Far-North Region, Cameroon: A Case - Control Study
The prevalence of FGM was high and FGMs were associated with maternal and fetal morbidity, therefore, mass sensitization on the consequences of Fgm, utilization of ANC services and health facility child births should be encouraged. Expand
Female genital mutilation and obstetric outcome: A cross-sectional comparative study in a tertiary hospital in Abakaliki South East Nigeria
It is shown that FGM in labour increases the odds of developing perineal trauma which may be associated with a host of short- and long-term complications. Expand
Female genital mutilation: opinion of outpatients of a department of obstetrics and gynaecology in north central Nigeria
Female genital cutting/mutilation is still practiced in the authors' environment and some of the women knew the negative reproductive health consequences of FGM and had experienced them during sexual intercourse and childbirth, however, with regard to stopping FGM, majority had not taken any steps towards stopping the practice. Expand


Impact of female genital mutilation on maternal and neonatal outcomes during parturition.
  • L. Hakim
  • Medicine
  • East African medical journal
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The study demonstrates the negative impact of FGM more on maternal than neonatal outcomes during parturition and creates awareness of its implication on women and neonatal health. Expand
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  • Medicine
  • International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
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Circumcised women had significantly higher risks of tearing and stillbirths when all pregnancies were analyzed, while there was no significant difference between women with type 1 and type 2. Expand
Female genital cutting practices in Burkina Faso and Mali and their negative health outcomes.
Logistic regression analyses show significant positive relationships between the severity of genital cutting and the probability that a woman would have gynecological and obstetric complications. Expand
The long‐term reproductive health consequences of female genital cutting in rural Gambia: a community‐based survey
The relationship between FGC and long‐term reproductive morbidity remains unclear, especially in settings where type II cutting predominates, and efforts to eradicate it should incorporate a human rights approach. Expand
Female genital cutting in southern urban and peri‐urban Nigeria: self‐reported validity, social determinants and secular decline
Prevalence of FGC was highest among the Bini and Urhobo, among those with the least education, and particularly high among adherents to Pentecostal churches; this was independent of related social factors. Expand
Circumcision and infibulation of females: a general consideration of the problem and a clinical study of the complications in Sudanese women.
Results of a clinical study conducted into the immediate and long-term complications of female circumcision and infibulation in Sudan show retention of urine was a more common but less serious immediate complication than either shock or hemorrhage. Expand
WHO multicentre randomised trial of misoprostol in the management of the third stage of labour
A multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial to determine whether oral misoprostol is as effective as oxytocin during the third stage of labour and the use of additional uterotonics without an unacceptable level of side-effects. Expand
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  • Medicine
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It is concluded that circumcised patients, receiving optimal ante-natal and intra-partum care in hospital, should all be delivered in hospitals with specialised units. Expand
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  • Sociology, Medicine
  • Journal of advanced nursing
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The literature on female genital mutilation within a feminist theoretical context is discussed and parallels with other similar practices in developed and developing countries will be drawn and policy strategies discussed. Expand
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This "Innocenti Digest" examines the social dynamics of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). In communities where it is practiced, FGM/C is an important part of girls' and women's culturalExpand