Female genital mutilation and infections: a systematic review of the clinical evidence

  title={Female genital mutilation and infections: a systematic review of the clinical evidence},
  author={Christos R Iavazzo and Thalia A. Sardi and Ioannis D. Gkegkes},
  journal={Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics},
AimFemale genital mutilation (FGM) is a common practice especially performed in women with no anaesthesia or antibiotics and in absence of aseptic conditions. The aim of this systematic review is to explore and analyze for first time in the current literature, the clinical evidence related to the presence of infections in the practice of FGM.MethodA systematic search of PubMed and Scopus was performed. A combination of the terms “female circumcision”, “genital mutilation”, “genital cutting” and… 
Female genital mutilation
Local organizations in collaboration with religious institutions and community leaders should work together to engage in a process of change within the entire community by arranging awareness creation programmes on the harmfulness of the practice especially in the rural areas.
An overview of female genital mutilation
A 31-year-old woman who had FGM reporting unconsummated marriage presented to the authors' clinic clinic, and surgical correction was performed by de-infibulation for treatment of sexual dysfunction.
A Cross-sectional Study on the Prevalence of Cervical Dysplasia Among Women With Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting
The prevalence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion+ among migrant women with FGM/C is high compared with the general Swiss population, and follow-up for cervical dysplasia must be improved by increasing provider knowledge of this patient population and by addressing barriers to care.
Female Genital Mutilations: Genito-Urinary Complications and Ethical-Legal Aspects
This review analyzes the epidemiology of FGMs, the reasons why the practice is still made, the complications, the ethical, and the principal legal aspects of this practise that must be hopefully early banned.
Associations between female genital mutilation/cutting and HIV: a review of the evidence
The available evidence did not conclusively demonstrate the anticipated association between FGM/C and HIV, and the need for stronger study designs is revealed and some considerations for future research are outlined.
Female genital mutilation: a urology focus.
The urological complications experienced by women who have undergone FGM are explored, and the effects this can have on their health and wellbeing are explored.
Female genital mutilation (FGM) and the lower urinary tract
Although FGM is primarily performed in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, migration of FGM practising communities means that the health professionals worldwide need to be aware of the impact of Fgm on health.
Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: A Cross-Sectional Study
How common female genital mutilation is in women living with HIV and who have migrated to Switzerland and how care and prevention could be improved significantly are demonstrated and suggested.
International continence society white paper regarding female genital mutilation/cutting
This White Paper, prepared under the auspices of the International Continence Society (ICS), is intended by the ICS as a statement promoting the abandonment of this practice.
Female genital mutilation: a literature review.
  • L. TerryK. Harris
  • Medicine
    Nursing standard (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain) : 1987)
  • 2013
A literature review explores the prevalence of and attitudes to FGM, personal experiences of women who have undergone the procedure and effective nursing care of this patient group.


Urogenital complications among girls with genital mutilation: a hospital-based study in Khartoum.
It is concluded that FGM contributes significantly to morbidity among girls, a large share of which does not come to medical attention.
Female genital mutilation among Edo people: the complications and pattern of presentation at a pediatric surgery unit, Benin City.
This prospective study on female genital mutilation among Edo people was based on female children and parents who presented on account of it at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City,
Female Genital Mutilation ‐ Experience of The Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne
It was found that 77.6% of women identified as having had female genital mutilation had undergone infibulation, and more than 85% of the women in this study reported a complication of the procedure.
Female genital mutilation: an injury, physical and mental harm
An overview over the huge topic of ‘female genital mutilation’ (FGM) is given, which concerns about 130 million women around the world and is definitely unacceptable.
Late complications of childhood female genital mutilation.
  • Aseel HamoudiM. Shier
  • Medicine
    Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada : JOGC = Journal d'obstetrique et gynecologie du Canada : JOGC
  • 2010
Circumcision and infibulation of females: a general consideration of the problem and a clinical study of the complications in Sudanese women.
Results of a clinical study conducted into the immediate and long-term complications of female circumcision and infibulation in Sudan show retention of urine was a more common but less serious immediate complication than either shock or hemorrhage.
Complications of female circumcision in the Sudan.
The pattern of complications of Intermediate and Pharaonic circumcision was found to be the same and both types of circumcision sometimes suffered more than one complication.
Female Genital Mutilation and its Psychosexual Impact
It is suggested that circumcision has a negative impact on a woman's psychosexual life and causes loss of interest in foreplay and dyspareunia.
Female genital cutting in the demographic and health surveys: a critical and comparative analysis
This comparative report summarizes data on FGC from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) implemented between 1989 and 2002 to make more accessible the basic information on the distribution and practice of FGC and to encourage country-specific analysis of DHS data onFGC.