more likely than those without FGM to have adverse obstetric outcomes. Moreover, the risk of an adverse outcome increases with more extensive FGM (see FGM types on page 3). This information is important for healthcare providers looking after women with FGM during childbirth. FGM remains a pressing human rights and a public health issue. It is expected that reliable evidence about its harmful effects, especially on reproductive outcomes, will help to persuade people to abandon the practice.