Female genital mutilation: an injury, physical and mental harm

  title={Female genital mutilation: an injury, physical and mental harm},
  author={Isabelle Utz-Billing and Heribert Kentenich},
  journal={Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics \& Gynecology},
  pages={225 - 229}
This article gives an overview over the huge topic of ‘female genital mutilation’ (FGM). FGM means non-therapeutic, partial or complete removal or injury of each of the external female genitals. It concerns about 130 million women around the world. FGM is performed in about 30 countries, most of which are located in Africa. Four types of FGM are distinguished: type I stands for the removal of the clitoral foreskin, type II means the removal of the clitoris with partial or total excision of the… 
Obstetric consequences of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C)
Women who have undergone FGM/C seem to be more likely than non-cut women to experience prolonged labor, Obstetric tears, instrumental delivery, obstetric hemorrhage, and diffi cult delivery.
Immediate Health Consequences of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C)
This systematic review addressed harm occurring during the cutting or alteration modifi cation process and the short-term period of female genital mutilation/cutting and found few differences in risk of immediate complications among different types of FGM/C.
Female Genital Mutilation Is a Violation of Reproductive Rights of Women: Implications for Health Workers.
In this study, an attempt has been made to understand the prevalence and practice of FGM worldwide and its adverse effects on women's reproductive health.
Gynecological Consequences of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C)
A systematic review of empirical quantitative research describing the gynecological consequences of female genital mutilation/cutting found that women with FGM/C seem to be more likely than women without Fgm/C to experience urinary tract infection, bacterial vaginosis, and pain during intercourse.
Female genital mutilation and infections: a systematic review of the clinical evidence
A variety of infections can occur after FGM, including UTIs, genitourinary tract infections, abscess formation and septicemia or even HIV infection, which can be a great burden for the families.
Female genital circumcision/mutilation: implications for female urogynaecological health
Consequences for female pelvic health are addressed; in particular, special emphasis is placed on “voiding difficulties”, “recurrent urinary tract infections” and “vesicovaginal fistula”.
Effect of female genital mutilation/cutting; types I and II on sexual function: case-controlled study
FGM/C was associated with reduced scores of FSFI on all domains scores, and among both types I and II, both were associated with sexual dysfunction.
Female Genital Mutilation: Trauma, Loss and Key Clinical Considerations
Female Genital Mutilation: Trauma, Loss and Key Clinical Considerations Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a traditional practice which is widely practiced in several regions of the world. The
Psychosexual Complications of Female Genital Mutilation for Couples: A Comparative Study
FGM is associated with frequent psychosexual difficulties in Uramanat couples; notably orgasm difficulties, sense of incomplete sexual-needs fulfillment, and neurotic symptoms, which could help women cope with psychological and psychosexual problems.
Is female genital mutilation associated with eclampsia? Evidence from a nationally representative survey data
A possible association between infibulation and eclampsia is suggested, while the association was not significant in women with other categories of FGM.


Female Genital Mutilation: A Call for Global Action
Information on prevalence physical and psychological effects and religious requirements are needed to take action against FGM, which enhances the sexual pleasure of men while genitally mutilated women sense little or no sexual pleasure.
Impact of female genital mutilation on maternal and neonatal outcomes during parturition.
  • L. Hakim
  • Medicine
    East African medical journal
  • 2001
The study demonstrates the negative impact of FGM more on maternal than neonatal outcomes during parturition and creates awareness of its implication on women and neonatal health.
Female genital mutilation (female circumcision)
  • G. Meniru
  • Medicine
    British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology
  • 1994
The commentary on female circumcision by Jordan (February 1994) addresses a custom which has for long been a source of distress to health workers and many others in developing countries, and public health education and improving access to formal education for women will lead to the eventual abolition of this custom.
Circumcision and infibulation of females: a general consideration of the problem and a clinical study of the complications in Sudanese women.
Results of a clinical study conducted into the immediate and long-term complications of female circumcision and infibulation in Sudan show retention of urine was a more common but less serious immediate complication than either shock or hemorrhage.
Female genital mutilation in Nigeria
  • M. Mandara
  • Medicine
    International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
  • 2004
Female genital surgeries: the known, the unknown, and the unknowable.
The article discusses some of the implications of research on female genital surgeries for the societies that are involved--not merely those where the practices are found, but also those whose gaze has been so intensely focused on the customs of others.
13 Female Genital Cutting : The Beginning of the End
In 1996, I published a more or less complete, although condensed, "convention" theory of female genital cutting (FGC), which attempted to account for the origins, distribution, maintenance, and
Sequelae of female circumcision.
Female circumcision encompasses all operations involving mutilation of the female genitalia and both immediate and delayed complications of the procedure are discussed.