Female genital mutilation: an injury, physical and mental harm

@article{UtzBilling2008FemaleGM,
  title={Female genital mutilation: an injury, physical and mental harm},
  author={Isabelle Utz-Billing and Heribert Kentenich},
  journal={Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics \& Gynecology},
  year={2008},
  volume={29},
  pages={225 - 229}
}
This article gives an overview over the huge topic of ‘female genital mutilation’ (FGM). FGM means non-therapeutic, partial or complete removal or injury of each of the external female genitals. It concerns about 130 million women around the world. FGM is performed in about 30 countries, most of which are located in Africa. Four types of FGM are distinguished: type I stands for the removal of the clitoral foreskin, type II means the removal of the clitoris with partial or total excision of the… 
Obstetric consequences of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C)
TLDR
Women who have undergone FGM/C seem to be more likely than non-cut women to experience prolonged labor, Obstetric tears, instrumental delivery, obstetric hemorrhage, and diffi cult delivery.
Immediate Health Consequences of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C)
TLDR
This systematic review addressed harm occurring during the cutting or alteration modifi cation process and the short-term period of female genital mutilation/cutting and found few differences in risk of immediate complications among different types of FGM/C.
Female Genital Mutilation Is a Violation of Reproductive Rights of Women: Implications for Health Workers.
TLDR
In this study, an attempt has been made to understand the prevalence and practice of FGM worldwide and its adverse effects on women's reproductive health.
Gynecological Consequences of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C)
TLDR
A systematic review of empirical quantitative research describing the gynecological consequences of female genital mutilation/cutting found that women with FGM/C seem to be more likely than women without Fgm/C to experience urinary tract infection, bacterial vaginosis, and pain during intercourse.
Female genital mutilation and infections: a systematic review of the clinical evidence
TLDR
A variety of infections can occur after FGM, including UTIs, genitourinary tract infections, abscess formation and septicemia or even HIV infection, which can be a great burden for the families.
Female genital circumcision/mutilation: implications for female urogynaecological health
TLDR
Consequences for female pelvic health are addressed; in particular, special emphasis is placed on “voiding difficulties”, “recurrent urinary tract infections” and “vesicovaginal fistula”.
Effect of female genital mutilation/cutting; types I and II on sexual function: case-controlled study
TLDR
FGM/C was associated with reduced scores of FSFI on all domains scores, and among both types I and II, both were associated with sexual dysfunction.
Female Genital Mutilation: Trauma, Loss and Key Clinical Considerations
Female Genital Mutilation: Trauma, Loss and Key Clinical Considerations Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a traditional practice which is widely practiced in several regions of the world. The
Psychosexual Complications of Female Genital Mutilation for Couples: A Comparative Study
TLDR
FGM is associated with frequent psychosexual difficulties in Uramanat couples; notably orgasm difficulties, sense of incomplete sexual-needs fulfillment, and neurotic symptoms, which could help women cope with psychological and psychosexual problems.
Is female genital mutilation associated with eclampsia? Evidence from a nationally representative survey data
TLDR
A possible association between infibulation and eclampsia is suggested, while the association was not significant in women with other categories of FGM.
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References

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TLDR
Information on prevalence physical and psychological effects and religious requirements are needed to take action against FGM, which enhances the sexual pleasure of men while genitally mutilated women sense little or no sexual pleasure.
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TLDR
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