Female Smokers Are at Greater Risk of Airflow Obstruction Than Male Smokers. UK Biobank

@article{Amaral2017FemaleSA,
  title={Female Smokers Are at Greater Risk of Airflow Obstruction Than Male Smokers. UK Biobank},
  author={Andr{\'e} F. S. Amaral and David P. Strachan and Peter G. J. Burney and Deborah L. Jarvis},
  journal={American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine},
  year={2017},
  volume={195},
  pages={1226–1235}
}
Rationale: The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasing faster among women than among men. Objectives: To examine sex differences in the risk of airflow obstruction (a COPD hallmark) in relation to smoking history. Methods: We analyzed 149,075 women and 100,252 men taking part in the UK Biobank who had provided spirometry measurements and information on smoking. The association of airflow obstruction with smoking characteristics was assessed by sex using… 
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