Female Circumcision in Africa: An Overview

@article{Kouba1985FemaleCI,
  title={Female Circumcision in Africa: An Overview},
  author={Leonard J. Kouba and Judith Muasher},
  journal={African Studies Review},
  year={1985},
  volume={28},
  pages={95 - 110}
}
Since the dawn of history, mankind has developed a variety of practices which are intricately related to complex social orders and to traditional codes of behavior. Over the years many of these, especially those with harmful effects, were gradually abandoned while others remained. One of those which still survives is the practice of female circumcision with its long past and its serious health complications (Taba, 1980: 21). There is no conclusive evidence to indicate where female circumcision… 
Abusing female children by circumcision is continued in Egypt.
Rethinking female circumcision
Abstract Female circumcision is practised in more than twenty African countries as well as in a number of countries in the Middle East, and it has been estimated that at least 100 million females
An Analytical Approach to Female Genital Mutilation in West Africa
Female genital mutilation in different parts of the African continent isconsidered as one of the vast territory’s social problems. This social problem whichis accounted as an old tradition in
The Church and the 1929 Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) contestation in Kenya, with special reference to the Scottish Presbyterian Church and the Kikuyu community
Initiation rites are the lifeblood of most African communities. In East Africa, these rites are part of traditional beliefs and customs, and may include physical mutilation,. In Kenya, particularly,
Combating female genital mutilation in Northeast (Horn) Africa and its challenges
TLDR
It is found that female genital mutilation in Northeast African countries has resulted in many lifelong diseases and sexual degradation in many women and the best way to combat this tradition is to inform people by gradual (not abrupt) trainings without any insult to the beliefs of the people.
An Overview of Female Genital Mutilation in Africa: Are the Women Beneficiaries or Victims?
TLDR
It was established that the practice of FGM in the African continent is highly undesirable and creates numerous health complications coupled with psychosocial, psychological, and psychosexual issues for the mutilated women.
FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION: THE PLACE OF CULTURE AND THE DEBILITATING EFFECTS ON THE DIGNITY OF THE FEMALE GENDER
TLDR
The discourse brings to the fore, the implications of FGM practice on the dignity of the female gender and proposes an annihilation of this dastardly act.
Female Genital Mutilation/Circumcision: Culture and Sexual Health in Igbo Women in Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas
TLDR
Understanding the reasons behind the culture of FGM will assist public health professionals in designing appropriate culturally-specific intervention strategies that will help to eliminate inappropriate and unsafe practices associated with FGM.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 58 REFERENCES
Female circumcision in Egypt: social implications, current research, and prospects for change.
  • M. Assaad
  • Medicine
    Studies in family planning
  • 1980
TLDR
The social implications of the practice of female circumcision in Egypt are examined and interviews conducted in a pilot study in 1979 suggest that even in the absence of social and economic change, many uneducated women, given information, will question the validity ofFemale circumcision.
Female "circumcision" and politics.
TLDR
The author discusses the practice of FGM during the 1920s and 1930s and the attending debate over the practice involving the former colonial government the Scottish Protestant missions and the growing nationalist forces in Kenya.
female genital mutilation, fertility control, women's roles, and the patrilineage in modern Sudan: a functional analysis1
Infibulation or Pharonic circumcision is a sociocultural feature of nomadic pastoralists riverine agriculturalists urban dwellers and educated elites throughout Northeast Africa. The operation
Infibulation and Female Circumcision A Study of a Little‐known Custom
  • A. Worsley
  • Medicine
    The Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology of the British Empire
  • 1938
TLDR
The purpose of the practice is usually to preserve virginity until marriage, however, a whole network of other reasons has grown up and interwoven itself in tribal custom.
Female circumcision, excision, and infibulation : the facts and proposals for change
TLDR
The highest possible level of sensitivity must be exercised in an attempt to eliminate female genital mutilation because in many places it is an integral part of the culture and any attempts to eliminate it can be seen as attempts to eliminated the entire culture.
FEMALE CIRCUMCISION AND INFIBULATION IN THE SUDAN
TLDR
The only means of avoiding complications altogether is abolishing the practice of female circumcision, which is performed in Egypt, Sudan, and among the Urabunna tribes of Australia and in Russia.
Female Circumcision and Fertility in Africa
Female circumcision is the best kept secret in today's Africa. One can travel even with the credentials of a journalist without ever learning any of the facts that are described here. Female
Clitoridectomy: female circumcision in Egypt.
TLDR
Female circumcision, or clitoridectomy, has been mentioned in ancient writings from many parts of the world and is generally performed 1-2 years preceding puberty, so it cannot really be considered a rite of passage.
Clitoridectomy: female circumcision in Egypt.
TLDR
Female circumcision or clitoridectomy has been mentioned in ancient writings from many parts of the world and is generally performed 1-2 years preceding puberty, therefore it cannot really be considered a rite of passage.
...
...