Feelings: What Are They & How Does the Brain Make Them?

@article{LeDoux2015FeelingsWA,
  title={Feelings: What Are They \& How Does the Brain Make Them?},
  author={Joseph E LeDoux},
  journal={Daedalus},
  year={2015},
  volume={144},
  pages={96-111}
}
Traditionally, we define “emotions” as feelings and “feelings” as conscious experiences. Conscious experiences are not readily studied in animals. However, animal research is essential to understanding the brain mechanisms underlying psychological function. So how can we make study mechanisms related to emotion in animals? I argue that our approach to this topic has been flawed and propose a way out of the dilemma: to separate processes that control so-called emotional behavior from the… 
Physiological feelings
Animal welfare with and without consciousness
TLDR
It is argued that both the study of consciousness itself and the science of animal welfare benefit from facing up to difficulties rather than glossing over them and allowing animal welfare science to move forward without having solved the hardest biological problem of all.
Evolving Concepts of Emotion and Motivation
TLDR
Evidence is reviewed that emotions exist as core psychological processes, which have objectively detectable features, and which can occur either with subjective feelings or without them, and also that studies of emotion in animals can give new insights into human emotions.
A general theory of consciousness I: Consciousness and adaptation
  • A. Peper
  • Psychology
    Communicative & integrative biology
  • 2020
TLDR
The theory proposed postulates that consciousness is an inseparable part of the body’s adaptation mechanism and is corroborated by functional block diagrams of the processes involved in the complex regulated mechanism of adaptation and consciousness during an environmental disturbance.
Affect: Theory and Research
Affective experiences add palettes of colour to our life, and to a large extent determine who we really are or will become. This chapter is devoted to a discussion of the profound impact of affect
A New Narrative About Emotions and Their Connection to Learning
By focusing on current cognitive and neuroscience research, we explore the important role of emotions and feelings play in the learning process (Bresciani Ludvik, 2016; Immordino-Yang, 2016; Zull,
The role of hedonics in the Human Affectome
WordNet-feelings: A linguistic categorisation of human feelings
TLDR
This article surveys the extensive interdisciplinary literature around feelings to construct a working definition of what constitutes a feeling and proposes 9 broad categories of feeling, a new affective dataset that identifies 3664 word senses as feelings, and associates each of these with one of the 9 categories of Feeling.
Differentiating recognition for anger and fear facial expressions via inhibitionof return.
The goal of this study was to find out whether two negative emotions—fear and anger, known for their attention grabbing capacity-are equally prone to the detection cost or habituation of attention as
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 67 REFERENCES
Coming to terms with fear
  • Joseph E LeDoux
  • Psychology, Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2014
TLDR
A conception of so-called fear conditioning in terms of circuits that operate nonconsciously, but that indirectly contribute to conscious fear, is proposed as way forward.
Emotion Circuits in the Brain
The field of neuroscience has, after a long period of looking the other way, again embraced emotion as an important research area. Much of the progress has come from studies of fear, and especially
Are Emotions Natural Kinds?
  • L. F. Barrett
  • Philosophy
    Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science
  • 2006
TLDR
The accumulating empirical evidence is reviewed that is inconsistent with the view that there are kinds of emotion with boundaries that are carved in nature and what moving beyond a natural-kind view might mean for the scientific understanding of emotion.
The emotional brain
TLDR
In The Emotional Brain, Joseph LeDoux investigates the origins of human emotions and explains that many exist as part of complex neural systems that evolved to enable us to survive.
The social brain?
  • C. Frith
  • Psychology, Biology
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2007
TLDR
It is suggested that the medial prefrontal cortex may have a special role in the second-order representations needed for communicative acts when the authors have to represent someone else's representation of their own mental state.
Emotion and cognition: insights from studies of the human amygdala.
  • E. Phelps
  • Psychology, Biology
    Annual review of psychology
  • 2006
TLDR
This review explores insights into the relations between emotion and cognition that have resulted from studies of the human amygdala, suggesting that the classic division between the study of emotion and Cognition may be unrealistic and that an understanding of human cognition requires the consideration of emotion.
From normal fear to pathological anxiety.
TLDR
How pathological anxiety may develop from adaptive fear states is addressed, and hyperexcitability of fear circuits that include the amygdala and extended amygdala is expressed as hypervigilance and increased behavioral responsivity to fearful stimuli.
The Amygdala, Social Behavior, and Danger Detection
  • D. Amaral
  • Psychology, Biology
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 2003
TLDR
It is hypothesized that the amygdala is a critical component of a system that evaluates the environment for potential dangers and has a modulatory role on social behavior—that is, it typically inhibits social interaction with novel conspecifics while they are evaluated as potential adversaries.
What is it like to be a Bat
Consciousness is what makes the mind-body problem really intractable. Perhaps that is why current discussions of the problem give it little attention or get it obviously wrong. The recent wave of
...
...