Feelings: What Are They & How Does the Brain Make Them?

  title={Feelings: What Are They \& How Does the Brain Make Them?},
  author={Joseph E LeDoux},
Traditionally, we define “emotions” as feelings and “feelings” as conscious experiences. Conscious experiences are not readily studied in animals. However, animal research is essential to understanding the brain mechanisms underlying psychological function. So how can we make study mechanisms related to emotion in animals? I argue that our approach to this topic has been flawed and propose a way out of the dilemma: to separate processes that control so-called emotional behavior from the… 
Physiological feelings
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Evolving Concepts of Emotion and Motivation
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  • Psychology
    Communicative & integrative biology
  • 2020
The theory proposed postulates that consciousness is an inseparable part of the body’s adaptation mechanism and is corroborated by functional block diagrams of the processes involved in the complex regulated mechanism of adaptation and consciousness during an environmental disturbance.
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A New Narrative About Emotions and Their Connection to Learning
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WordNet-feelings: A linguistic categorisation of human feelings
This article surveys the extensive interdisciplinary literature around feelings to construct a working definition of what constitutes a feeling and proposes 9 broad categories of feeling, a new affective dataset that identifies 3664 word senses as feelings, and associates each of these with one of the 9 categories of Feeling.
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Coming to terms with fear
  • Joseph E LeDoux
  • Psychology, Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2014
A conception of so-called fear conditioning in terms of circuits that operate nonconsciously, but that indirectly contribute to conscious fear, is proposed as way forward.
Emotion Circuits in the Brain
The field of neuroscience has, after a long period of looking the other way, again embraced emotion as an important research area. Much of the progress has come from studies of fear, and especially
Are Emotions Natural Kinds?
  • L. F. Barrett
  • Philosophy
    Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science
  • 2006
The accumulating empirical evidence is reviewed that is inconsistent with the view that there are kinds of emotion with boundaries that are carved in nature and what moving beyond a natural-kind view might mean for the scientific understanding of emotion.
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  • C. Frith
  • Psychology, Biology
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2007
It is suggested that the medial prefrontal cortex may have a special role in the second-order representations needed for communicative acts when the authors have to represent someone else's representation of their own mental state.
Emotion and cognition: insights from studies of the human amygdala.
  • E. Phelps
  • Psychology, Biology
    Annual review of psychology
  • 2006
This review explores insights into the relations between emotion and cognition that have resulted from studies of the human amygdala, suggesting that the classic division between the study of emotion and Cognition may be unrealistic and that an understanding of human cognition requires the consideration of emotion.
From normal fear to pathological anxiety.
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The Amygdala, Social Behavior, and Danger Detection
  • D. Amaral
  • Psychology, Biology
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 2003
It is hypothesized that the amygdala is a critical component of a system that evaluates the environment for potential dangers and has a modulatory role on social behavior—that is, it typically inhibits social interaction with novel conspecifics while they are evaluated as potential adversaries.
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Consciousness is what makes the mind-body problem really intractable. Perhaps that is why current discussions of the problem give it little attention or get it obviously wrong. The recent wave of