Feeling robots and human zombies: Mind perception and the uncanny valley

@article{Gray2012FeelingRA,
  title={Feeling robots and human zombies: Mind perception and the uncanny valley},
  author={Kurt Gray and Daniel M. Wegner},
  journal={Cognition},
  year={2012},
  volume={125},
  pages={125-130}
}
The uncanny valley-the unnerving nature of humanlike robots-is an intriguing idea, but both its existence and its underlying cause are debated. We propose that humanlike robots are not only unnerving, but are so because their appearance prompts attributions of mind. In particular, we suggest that machines become unnerving when people ascribe to them experience (the capacity to feel and sense), rather than agency (the capacity to act and do). Experiment 1 examined whether a machine's humanlike… Expand

Figures and Topics from this paper

Overcoming the uncanny valley: Displays of emotions reduce the uncanniness of humanlike robots
TLDR
It is shown that a highly humanlike robot displaying emotions in a social context reduces death-thought accessibility (DTA), which in turn reduces uncanniness, leading to perceptions of uncannness and eeriness of such robots. Expand
Understanding the Uncanny: Both Atypical Features and Category Ambiguity Provoke Aversion toward Humanlike Robots
TLDR
This work explored the relationship between human similarity and people's aversion toward humanlike robots via manipulation of the agents' appearances, and furthers the understanding of both the uncanny valley, as well as the visual factors that contribute to an agent's uncanniness. Expand
The uncanny of mind in a machine: Humanoid robots as tools, agents, and experiencers
TLDR
The results indicate that a robot's capacity to feel elicits stronger feelings of eeriness than a robots' capacity to plan ahead and to exert self-control, which elicits more eerness than a robot without mind. Expand
Seeming autonomy, technology and the uncanny valley
This paper extends Mori’s (IEEE Robot Autom Mag 19:98–100, 2012) uncanny valley-hypothesis to include technologies that fail its basic criterion that uncanniness arises when the subject experiences aExpand
I, Robot: How Human Appearance and Mind Attribution Relate to the Perceived Danger of Robots
TLDR
Perceived agency and experience did not show similar mediating effects on human–machine distinctiveness, but a positive relation with perceived damage for humans and their identity. Expand
Creepiness Creeps In: Uncanny Valley Feelings Are Acquired in Childhood.
TLDR
Children's perceptions of robots' mental capacities predicted uncanny feelings: children judge robots to be creepyDepending on whether they have human-like minds, the uncanny valley is acquired over development and relates to changing conceptions about robot minds. Expand
The Uncanny Valley: Existence and Explanations
More than 40 years ago, Japanese roboticist Masahiro Mori (1970/2005) proposed the “uncanny valley” hypothesis, which predicted a nonlinear relation between robots’ perceived human likeness and theirExpand
Children's Responding to Humanlike Agents Reflects an Uncanny Valley
TLDR
It is found that, like adults, children were most averse to highly humanlike robots (relative to less human like robots and humans), but, unlike adults,Children's aversion did not translate to avoidance and indicates that the valley effect manifests well before adulthood. Expand
A Kansei-evaluation Study on the Uncanny Valley of Real-world Robots
Roboticists believe that highly, but not perfectly, realistic human-looking robots elicit negative feelings in humans. This is the so-called ‘uncanny valley’ response. Most research on the uncannyExpand
Human Perception of Animacy in Light of the Uncanny Valley Phenomenon
TLDR
In three studies, the uncanny valley hypothesis is corroborated, suggesting that the uncanny feeling may serve a function to wary humans of the potential danger of entities crossing the animate–inanimate boundary. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 63 REFERENCES
Flesh and Machines: How Robots Will Change Us
From the Publisher: Flesh and Machines explores the startlingly reciprocal connection between humans and their technological brethren, and explains how this relationship is being redefined as humansExpand
On seeing human: a three-factor theory of anthropomorphism.
TLDR
A theory to explain when people are likely to anthropomorphize and when they are not is described, focused on three psychological determinants--the accessibility and applicability of anthropocentric knowledge, the motivation to explain and understand the behavior of other agents, and the desire for social contact and affiliation. Expand
The Uncanny Valley: Effect of Realism on the Impression of Artificial Human Faces
TLDR
The results suggest that to have an almost perfectly realistic human appearance is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for the uncanny valley, which emerges only when there is also an abnormal feature. Expand
More than a body: mind perception and the nature of objectification.
TLDR
It is found that focusing on someone's body reduces perceptions of agency but increases perceptions of experience, which suggest that a body focus does not cause objectification per se but, instead, leads to a redistribution of perceived mind. Expand
Monkey visual behavior falls into the uncanny valley
TLDR
To bridge the gap, monkeys were presented with unrealistic and realistic synthetic monkey faces, as well as realmonkey faces, and measured whether they preferred looking at one type versus the others (using looking time as a measure of preference). Expand
Avoiding the uncanny valley: robot appearance, personality and consistency of behavior in an attention-seeking home scenario for a robot companion
TLDR
The HRI trials studied the participants’ preferences for various features of robot appearance and behavior, as well as their personality attributions towards the robots compared to their own personalities, finding that participants tended to prefer robots with more human-like appearance and attributes. Expand
Human emotion and the uncanny valley: A GLM, MDS, and Isomap analysis of robot video ratings
TLDR
This study applies regression, the generalized linear model, factor analysis, multidimensional scaling, and kernel isometric mapping to analyze ratings of 27 emotions of 18 moving figures whose appearance varies along a human likeness continuum to indicate attributions of eerie and creepy better capture the authors' visceral reaction to an uncanny robot than strange. Expand
Mind Perception Is the Essence of Morality
TLDR
It is suggested that moral judgment is rooted in a cognitive template of two perceived minds—a moral dyad of an intentional agent and a suffering moral patient, and dyadic morality uniquely accounts for the phenomena of dyadic completion, and moral typecasting. Expand
The thing that should not be: predictive coding and the uncanny valley in perceiving human and humanoid robot actions
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) repetition suppression, we explored the selectivity of the human action perception system (APS), which consists of temporal, parietal and frontalExpand
More human than you: attributing humanness to self and others.
TLDR
People perceive themselves to be more essentially human than others, and propose a corresponding phenomenon in interpersonal comparisons: People attribute greater humanness to themselves than to others, independent of self-enhancement. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...