Feeding ecology of two endangered sympatric megaherbivores: Asianelephant Elephas maximus and greater one-horned rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis in lowland Nepal

  title={Feeding ecology of two endangered sympatric megaherbivores: Asianelephant Elephas maximus and greater one-horned rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis in lowland Nepal},
  author={Narendra Man Babu Pradhan and Per Wegge and Stein R. Moe and Anil Shrestha},
Abstract We studied the diets of low-density but increasing populations of sympatric Asian elephants Elephas maximus and greater one-horned rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis in the Bardia National Park in lowland Nepal. A microhistological technique based on faecal material was used to estimate the seasonal diet composition of the two megaherbivores. Rhinos ate more grass than browse in all seasons, and their grass/browse ratio was significantly higher than that of elephants. Both species ate… 

Dry season habitat selection by a recolonizing population of Asian elephantsElephas maximus in lowland Nepal

Owing to landclearing and human expansion, Asian elephantElephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 is declining throughout its range. In lowland Nepal, the species now only occurs in small remnant populations,

Seed dispersal by megaherbivores: do Asian elephants disperse Mallotus philippinensis, a main food tree in northern India and Nepal?

It is concluded that the spreading of Mallotus and concurrent declining of sal might be the result of shifting ecological successions, triggered by more flooding and a more erratic rainfall pattern combined with less frequent forest fires, all of which are assumed to favour Mallotsus and hamper regeneration of Shorea robusta.

Seasonal pattern of food habits of large herbivores in riverine alluvial grasslands of Brahmaputra floodplains, Assam

The Jarman–Bell principle does not apply to riverine alluvial grasslands as body size did not explain the interspecific dietary patterns of the mega and meso-herbivores, which necessitates wet grassland-based management interventions for the continued co-existence of large herbivores in such habitats.


The nutrient content of the fodder species consumed by One-horned rhinoceros is identified which would be helpful to develop proper strategies for rhInoceros food management and this study collected samples from Chitwan National Park.

Dry season diet composition of four-horned antelope Tetracerus quadricornis in tropical dry deciduous forests, Nepal

It is recommended that dicot plant species—particularly fruit trees and shrubs, which are the major source of nutrients for FHA during resource-lean, dry season—be conserved and natural regeneration of these taxa be promoted.

Diet and habitat-niche relationships within an assemblage of large herbivores in a seasonal tropical forest

The results offer the first insights into the seasonal variation in browse : graze diet ratios and the habitat-niche overlap amongst the common largest-bodied mammalian herbivore species found in South India.

Nutritional ecology of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and human-wildlife interactions : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Conservation Ecology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

Background: Nepal provides habitat for approximately 100–125 wild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Although a small proportion of the world population of this species, this group is important for

How does a re‐colonizing population of Asian elephants affect the forest habitat?

A recently observed increase in the density of M. phillippinensis and the concurrent reduction of the hardly utilized Shorea robusta indicates that the rapidly growing elephant population may modify the composition of the forest by increasing its preferred food species.

Diet of the Four-horned Antelope Tetracerus quadricornis (De Blainville, 1816) in the Churia Hills of Nepal

The Four-horned Antelopes are concentrated feeders and browsers with a generalized feeding strategy and needs to be conducted in other landscapes and with sympatric and potential competitor species to understand its niche overlaps and degree of competition.

MegaFeed: Global database of megaherbivores’ feeding preferences

Terrestrial mammalian herbivores heavier than ~1000 kg, also known as megaherbivores, perform unique ecological functions due to their combination of heavy body mass, extended home ranges, abundant



Dry season diets and habitat use of sympatric Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus ) and greater one-horned rhinoceros ( Rhinocerus unicornis ) in Nepal

Dry season diets and habitat use of increasing populations of Asian elephants Elephas maximus and greater onehorned rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis in the Babai Valley of Royal Bardia National Park,

Dry season diets of sympatric ungulates in lowland Nepal: competition and facilitation in alluvial tall grasslands

A conceptual model is proposed where the larger megaherbivores (rhino and elephant Elephas maximus) facilitate the smaller swamp deer and hog deer during the monsoonal growing season, while the smaller and more selective deer species outcompete the larger during the dry season when food is more limited.

Behavioural ecology of the Greater one‐horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis)

In the Chitawan Valley of Nepal there were estimated to be between 270 and 310 Greater one-horned or Indian rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis L.). Population densities reached 4.85 rhinos/km2 in the

Comparison of the Diets of Yellow-Footed Rock-Wallabies and Sympatric Herbivores in Western New South Wales.

Diet of the rare yellow-footed rock wallaby was found by study of faeces along the escarpment of the Coturaundee Range in western New South Wales, Australia, where the most important component was browse, 44% of diet.

The savanna ecology of Kidepo Valley National Park

Elephant in particular appeared to alter their food habits seasonally and it is suggested that this may be an attempt to obtain a balanced intake of nutrients.

The Return of the Unicorns: The Natural History and Conservation of the Greater One-Horned Rhinoceros

Foreword, by George B. SchallerPrefaceIntroductionPart I: Vanishing Mammals, Vanishing Landscapes 1. Vanishing Mammals: The Rise and Fall of the Rhinoceroses2. Culture, Conservation, and the Demand

The feeding ecology of a selective browser, the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi)

Giraffe devote more time to foraging as the biomass and quality of the food declines in the dry season, and energy is conserved by minimizing energy-consuming activities at the most demanding times of day.

Elephant feeding behaviour in Ruaha National Park, Tanzania*

Elephants were observed in an area of woodland and bushland during two dry seasons and the intervening wet season, with within-season differences in the diversity of browse eaten, between-season variations in the use of individual tree and shrub species, and between- season differences in defaecation rates.

Woody plant damage by African elephants in relation to leaf nutrients in western Zimbabwe

  • R. Holdo
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of Tropical Ecology
  • 2003
Elephant damage may suppress recruitment in preferred tree species in Kalahari sand woodlands, supported by the fact that 44% of all trees surveyed had had their main stems broken by elephants, and the negative correlation between the height of damaged trees and elephant damage across species.