Fecal testosterone is elevated in high ranking female ibexes (Capra nubiana) and associated with increased aggression and a preponderance of male offspring.

We monitored fecal testosterone and progesterone levels in 26 adult ibexes (17 males, 9 females) in a captive herd Nubian ibex held on 250 ha tract to test if testosterone is associated with dominance. The ibexes were observed over a 20-month period, and including two mating seasons, during which time we collected fecal samples twice during early gestation… CONTINUE READING