Feast and famine — microbial life in the deep-sea bed

@article{Jrgensen2007FeastAF,
  title={Feast and famine — microbial life in the deep-sea bed},
  author={Bo Barker J{\o}rgensen and Antje Boetius},
  journal={Nature Reviews Microbiology},
  year={2007},
  volume={5},
  pages={770-781}
}
The seabed is a diverse environment that ranges from the desert-like deep seafloor to the rich oases that are present at seeps, vents, and food falls such as whales, wood or kelp. As well as the sedimentation of organic material from above, geological processes transport chemical energy — hydrogen, methane, hydrogen sulphide and iron — to the seafloor from the subsurface below, which provides a significant proportion of the deep-sea energy. At the sites on the seafloor where chemical energy is… 
New perspectives in benthic deep-sea microbial ecology
TLDR
Estimating the diversity of deep-sea benthic microbes and understanding their functions are some of the challenges of absolute priority, not only forDeep-sea microbial ecology, but also for the entire research field of life sciences.
Subseafloor archaeal communities: from the surface to a deep hot biosphere ?
TLDR
The present study shows the distribution of the archaeal communities within different biogeochemical habitats, reveals new phylogenetic lineages, and proposes a different definition of the deep sub-surface, which expands the known sub-seafloor biosphere to at least 1,626 meters below seafloor.
How Deep-Sea Wood Falls Sustain Chemosynthetic Life
Large organic food falls to the deep sea – such as whale carcasses and wood logs – are known to serve as stepping stones for the dispersal of highly adapted chemosynthetic organisms inhabiting hot
Microbial Ecology of the Dark Ocean above, at, and below the Seafloor
TLDR
This review focuses on the current understanding of microbiology in the dark ocean, outlining salient features of various habitats and discussing known and still unexplored types of microbial metabolism and their consequences in global biogeochemical cycling.
Highly Similar Prokaryotic Communities of Sunken Wood at Shallow and Deep-Sea Sites Across the Oceans
TLDR
Investigation of free-living and attached communities of bacteria and archaea from artificially immersed and naturally sunken wood logs with varying characteristics at several sites in the deep sea and in shallow water found high similarity of bacterial and archaeal assemblages, implying that wood falls harbor a specialized microbiota as observed in other ecosystems when the same environmental conditions reoccur.
The Seabed as Natural Laboratory: Lessons From Uncultivated Methanotrophs
TLDR
This chapter discusses how in situ biogeochemical and microbiological observations of natural seabed communities and in vitro enrichments contribute to understanding of the ecology and physiology of these “uncultivables”.
The Deep Subseafloor and Biosignatures
A critical issue in astrobiology is “where to look for present or past life?” and which types of environments could be relevant, i.e. environments associated with high probabilities to (have)
Report of Lamellibrachia Worm Tube from off Northwestern Andaman Island
  • Mohan Pm
  • Environmental Science
    Advances in Oceanography & Marine Biology
  • 2020
The Ocean is a dynamic ecosystem for its diversity and abundance of flora and fauna. It has representatives of all the fauna groups from intertidal to deep-sea regions, i.e., from microorganisms to
In situ growth of anammox bacteria in subseafloor sediments
TLDR
The growth of anammox bacteria in ∼80,000 year old subsurface sediments indicated by their four orders of magnitude abundance increase in the nitrate-ammonia transition zone (NATZ) coincides with a local increase in anamm ox power supply.
Hydrocarbon-related microbial processes in the deep sediments of the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin.
TLDR
It is shown that complex methane and sulfur metabolizing microbial populations are present in both locations, although their community structure and metabolic preferences differ due to potential variation in the hydrocarbon source.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 127 REFERENCES
Prokaryotic cells of the deep sub-seafloor biosphere identified as living bacteria
TLDR
It is shown that a large fraction of the sub-seafloor prokaryotes is alive, even in very old (16 million yr) and deep (> 400 m) sediments.
A ubiquitous thermoacidophilic archaeon from deep-sea hydrothermal vents
TLDR
The isolation and cultivation of a member of the DHVE2 group is reported, which is an obligate thermoacidophilic sulphur- or iron-reducing heterotroph capable of growing from pH 3.3 to 5.8 and between 55 and 75 °C, providing evidence that thermo Acidophiles may be key players in the sulphur and iron cycling at deep-sea vents.
Deep marine biosphere fuelled by increasing organic matter availability during burial and heating
Deep-sea sediments become apparently more hostile to life with increasing depth as temperature and pressure rise, and organic matter becomes increasingly recalcitrant. Demonstrations of high
Novel microbial communities of the Haakon Mosby mud volcano and their role as a methane sink
TLDR
It is found that the upward flow of sulphate- and oxygen-free mud volcano fluids restricts the availability of these electron acceptors for methane oxidation, and hence the habitat range of methanotrophs, which limits the capacity of the microbial methane filter at active marine mud volcanoes to <40% of the total flux.
Bacteria and cyanobacteria associated with phytodetritus in the deep sea
TLDR
The results show that phytodetritus is rapidly used by deep-sea adapted bacterial populations and that the biological degradation and transformation of sedimented detrital material in the deep sea is faster than hitherto assumed.
Biological communities at vent sites along the subduction zone off Oregon
An abundant deep-sea benthic community, dominated by the vestimentiferan tube worm, Lamellibrachia barhami, a giant white clam, Calyptogena sp., and a second clam, Solemya sp., was discovered along
Deep sub-seafloor prokaryotes stimulated at interfaces over geological time
TLDR
Results show that deep sedimentary prokaryotes can have high activity, have changing diversity associated with interfaces and are active over geological timescales.
Microbial community in a sediment-hosted CO2 lake of the southern Okinawa Trough hydrothermal system
TLDR
A biogeochemical and microbiological characterization of a microbial community inhabiting deep-sea sediments overlying a natural CO2 lake at the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field, southern Okinawa Trough suggests that microorganisms assimilatingCO2 and/or CH4 dominate the liquid CO2 and CO2-hydrate-bearing sediments.
...
...