• Corpus ID: 109004608

Feasibility study on manganese nodules recovery in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone

  title={Feasibility study on manganese nodules recovery in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone},
  author={Baivau Agarwal and Pan Hu and Marco Placidi and Harrif Santo and Jenny J. Zhou},
The sea occupies three quarters of the area on the earth and provides various kinds of resources to mankind in the form of minerals, food, medicines and even energy. “Seabed exploitation” specifically deals with recovery of the resources that are found on the seabed, in the form of solids, liquids and gasses (methane hydrates, oil and natural gas). The resources are abundant; nevertheless the recovery process from the seabed, poses various challenges to mankind. This study starts with a review… 
Metallurgical Processing of Polymetallic Ocean Nodules
During the last five decades metallurgical processing of polymetallic nodule is of global interest—as well as a challenge—for researchers, and industries. This has generated a vast knowledge base,
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This chapter looks at the techno-economic feasibility of processing of polymetallic nodules obtained from Pacific as well as Indian Ocean with an emphasis on cobalt market. Numerous processing routes
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China started to produce rare earth elements (REEs) in the 1980s, and since the mid-1990s, it has become the dominant producer. Rare earth element export quotas first introduced by the Chinese
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Mine planning of land-based mineral deposits follows well-established methods. The deep sea is currently under exploration, but mine planning approaches are still lacking. A spatial planning tool to
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The importance of manganese nodules, seafloor massive sulfides, and cobalt-rich manganese crusts as future metal sources has been well recognized. However, less geotechnical information of the
W artykule przedstawiono metody i układy technologiczne wykorzystywane lub projektowane do eksploatacji oceanicznych złóż konkrecji polimetalicznych. Przytoczono podział tych metod ze względu na


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Although deep-sea manganese nodules were discovered over a'century ago by scientists of the HMS Challenger expedition, few analyses of the nodules for the economically significant elements such as
This article reviews the state of the art in processing and extracting ocean manganese nodules. It briefly reviews the mining sites where abundant rich nodules occur and also describes the metal
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A synthesis of environmental data compiled over the past 25 years is reviewed and organized. We describe the anticipated activities associated with exploration for commercial deposits, with
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Results of such experiments and general knowledge of deep-sea ecology suggest that decades may be required for reestablishment of a balanced community, since the nodules will be removed and epigrowth on hard substrates is thereby precluded.
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The first attempt to exploit deep-sea manganese nodules ended in failure as a result of the collapse of world metal prices, the onerous provisions imposed by the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea
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    Proceedings of OCEANS 2005 MTS/IEEE
  • 2005
After reaching a peak in the 1970s, interest in exploitation of the minerals of the deep ocean floor sharply declined to the point where it is hard to remember when the prospects of mining the ocean
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Current impacts of human activities on the deep-sea floor ecosystem are reviewed, and anthropogenic changes to this ecosystem by the year 2025 are predicted, to help assess the risk of species extinctions from large-scale mining.
Environment aspects of manganese nodule mining