Twenty patients with advanced hematological malignancies at high risk of relapse who had each received a bone marrow transplant from a matched sibling were registered between October 1996 and January 2000. Cyclosporine (CSP) was tapered on day 40 and stopped on day 50 in 10 patients without prior grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), relapse or active infection. These patients were eligible for early tapering of CSP. Although grade II/III acute GVHD was observed in three patients and chronic GVHD in eight patients after CSP tapering, no patients died of GVHD. Three patients died due to disease relapse and one patient died of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia while in remission. The probability of event-free survival at 2 years was 60%. These result indicate that early tapering and withdrawal of CSP is feasible and may provide a graft-versus-leukemia effect in patients with advanced leukemia.