Feasibility assessment of a newly prepared cow-urine emulsified diesel fuel for CI engine application

@article{Jhalani2020FeasibilityAO,
  title={Feasibility assessment of a newly prepared cow-urine emulsified diesel fuel for CI engine application},
  author={Amit Jhalani and Dilip Sharma and Shyam Lal Soni and Pushpendra Kumar Sharma and Digambar Singh},
  journal={Fuel},
  year={2020},
  pages={119713}
}
Abstract Apart from the various emission reduction strategies, a novel concept of cow-urine emulsification in diesel has been explored in this study. In India, cow urine is easily and readily available as gomutra distillate. It constitutes of around 95% water and exhibits the benefits of water emulsification to improve the brake thermal efficiency. Additionally, it consists of urea which works as a reducing agent and significantly cuts-down the NOx emissions. Sodium, magnesium, calcium and… 
2 Citations
Effects of Water Ratio in Hydrous Ethanol on the Combustion and Emissions of a Hydrous Ethanol/Gasoline Combined Injection Engine under Different Excess Air Ratios
  • Decheng Li, Xiumin Yu, +5 authors Zhe Zhao
  • Medicine
    ACS omega
  • 2021
TLDR
Water inhibited combustion, prolonged CA 0-10 and CA 10-90, reduced Pmax and Tmax, and delayed APmax; larger λ made the deterioration on combustion more obvious, and the smaller λ had a larger tolerance to water; water could increase torque and improve emissions, but different parameters corresponded to different optimal Wrs.

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