OBJECTIVE To discuss the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic transperitoneal and transmesenteric pyeloplasty for recurrent ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). METHODS From May 2006 to June 2008, we admitted 5 cases of recurrent UPJO who had received open retroperitoneal pyeloplasty with 3 males and 2 females. They were 19 to 32 years old with the average of 24.5 years and suffered from recurrent UPJO 3 to 16 years with the average of 7.8 years after operation. They felt discomfort in the lumbar region to different extent and their intravenous pyelography (IVP) or computerized tomography for urinary system (CTU) showed typical UPJO. The nucleotide renal scan (NRS) revealed that the renal excretion was slow, even after intravenous injection of diuretics. The laparoscopic transperitoneal and transmesenteric pathway was done in such a way that the incision was longitudinal at the mesentery of small intestine near the affected ureteropelvic junction (UPJ). The UPJ was isolated to avoid injuring the intestine and the mesenteric blood vessels. The UPJO was removed with the routine Anderson-Hynes technique and the anastomosis between pelvis and ureter was carried out by 2 separate and running sutures. RESULTS The operating time was 105-230 min with the average of 165 min and the estimated blood loss was 50 to 120 mL with the average of 75 mL. Patients left bed on the first day and the drainage tube was taken out on the 4th to 5th day after the operation. There were no other injuries and complications. By October of 2008, they had been followed up for 33 to 49 months with the average of 37.5 months and IVP or CTU and the diuretic NRS showed smooth excretion of the operated UPJ. CONCLUSION As for experienced hands, the laparoscopic transperitoneal and transmesenteric pyeloplasty is feasible and safe for recurrent UPJO, but it's not recommended to the beginners of laparoscopic procedures.