Fears, phobias, and preparedness: toward an evolved module of fear and fear learning.

  title={Fears, phobias, and preparedness: toward an evolved module of fear and fear learning.},
  author={Arne Ohman and Susan Mineka},
  journal={Psychological review},
  volume={108 3},
An evolved module for fear elicitation and fear learning with 4 characteristics is proposed. (a) The fear module is preferentially activated in aversive contexts by stimuli that are fear relevant in an evolutionary perspective. (b) Its activation to such stimuli is automatic. (c) It is relatively impenetrable to cognitive control. (d) It originates in a dedicated neural circuitry, centered on the amygdala. Evidence supporting these propositions is reviewed from conditioning studies, both in… 

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