Fear, anger, and risk.

  title={Fear, anger, and risk.},
  author={Jennifer Susan Lerner and Dacher Keltner},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  volume={81 1},
  • J. Lerner, D. Keltner
  • Published 1 July 2001
  • Psychology
  • Journal of personality and social psychology
Drawing on an appraisal-tendency framework (J. S. Lerner & D. Keltner, 2000), the authors predicted and found that fear and anger have opposite effects on risk perception. Whereas fearful people expressed pessimistic risk estimates and risk-averse choices, angry people expressed optimistic risk estimates and risk-seeking choices. These opposing patterns emerged for naturally occurring and experimentally induced fear and anger. Moreover, estimates of angry people more closely resembled those of… 

Figures from this paper

Fear, Anger, and Risk Preference Reversals: An Experimental Study on a Chinese Sample

The results reveal that induced fear and anger have differential effects on risky decisions: angry participants prefer the risk-seeking option, whereas fearful participants prefer a risk-averse option, but there are no associations between dispositional fear (or anger) and risky decisions.

Fear and anger have opposite effects on risk seeking in the gain frame

It is confirmed that emotions play a key role in framing susceptibility, and fear and anger influenced risk-taking specifically in the gain frame and had opposite effects.

Context explains divergent effects of anger on risk taking.

The emotion anger is typically associated with increased risk taking. However, anger also produces increased probability estimates that emotionally congruent negative events will occur. This latter

The effect of emotions on risk perception: Experimental evaluation of the affective tendencies framework

The aim of this study was to assess the role of specific emotions on risk perception providing a more stringent experimental test of the Appraisal Tendencies Framework (ATF). Consistent with

Trait anger and anger expression style in children's risky decisions.

Risk decision-making can be viewed as the output of cognitive and emotive processes, linked to dispositional anger that leads children to be amused, optimistic and fearless in potentially risky situations.

Revisiting the Emotion–Risk Interaction: Do Anger and Fear Moderate the Impact of Risk on Public Support for War?

A key claim in the study of emotions is that anger makes people less responsive to risks, whereas fear makes people more responsive. Although risk is a fundamental concern in the area of military


-Anger is a basic emotion experienced in several aversive situations, In this study, the relation between Anger, Fear, and Sadness, as well as the dimensions of Valen ce, Arousal, and Dominance, were

Differential effects of trait anger on optimism and risk behaviour

The results partly confirmed the relation between trait anger and outcome expectations of future life events, but suggest that this optimism does not necessarily translate into actual risk-seeking behaviour.

I'm feeling lucky: the relationship between affect and risk-seeking in the framing effect.

A general role for emotion reliance on risk-seeking and a specific role of positive affect onrisk-seeking in the loss trials of the framing effect are indicated.



Beyond valence: Toward a model of emotion-specific influences on judgement and choice

Most theories of affective influences on judgement and choice take a valence-based approach, contrasting the effects of positive versus negative feeling states. These approaches have not specified if

Beyond simple pessimism: effects of sadness and anger on social perception.

Experiments 3, 4, and 5 showed that the experience of these emotions, rather than their cognitive constituents, mediates these effects of sadness and anger on social judgment.

All Negative Moods Are Not Equal: Motivational Influences of Anxiety and Sadness on Decision Making.

  • RaghunathanPham
  • Psychology
    Organizational behavior and human decision processes
  • 1999
Results from three experiments show that, in gambling decisions, as well as in job-selection decisions, sad individuals are biased in favor of high-risk/high-reward options, whereas anxious individuals are bias in Favor of low- risk/low-reWARD options.

Negative affect and social judgment: The differential impact of anger and sadness

The overwhelming majority of research on affect and social information processing has focused on the judgments and memories of people in good or bad moods rather than examining more specific kinds of

The persistent use of negative affect by anxious individuals to estimate risk.

Overall, the results suggest that trait-consistent affect is more readily assumed to be informative and hence is more likely to be relied on than trait-inconsistent affect.

Risk as Feelings

It is shown that emotional reactions to risky situations often diverge from cognitive assessments of those risks, and when such divergence occurs, emotional reactions often drive behavior.

Beyond valence in the perception of likelihood: the role of emotion specificity.

4 studies provide evidence that this congruency bias is not limited to valence but functions in an emotion-specific manner, derives from the informational value of emotions, and is not the inevitable outcome of likelihood assessment under heightened emotion.

Judgment under emotional certainty and uncertainty: the effects of specific emotions on information processing.

It is suggested that the certainty appraisal content of emotions is also important in determining whether people engage in systematic or heuristic processing, unlike previous theories linking valence and processing.

Pity, Anger, and Guilt

Three basic dimensions of causality, which represent the underlying properties of causes, have been identified: locus, stability, and controllability. Evidence was presented that these dimensions are

On being happy and mistaken: mood effects on the fundamental attribution error.

  • J. Forgas
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1998
3 experiments predicted and found that negative moods decrease and positive moods increase the fundamental attribution error (FAE), and showed that changes in the FAE were linked to mood-induced differences in processing style, as indicated by memory data and confirmed by mediational analyses.