Favoritism Under Social Pressure

  title={Favoritism Under Social Pressure},
  author={Luis Garicano and Ignacio Palacios-Huerta and Canice Prendergast},
  journal={Review of Economics and Statistics},
This paper is concerned with the effect of nonmonetary incentives on behavior, in particular with the study of social pressure as a determinant of corruption. We offer empirical evidence that shows how professional soccer referees favor home teams in order to satisfy the crowds in the stadium. Referees have discretion over the addition of extra time at the end of a soccer game to compensate for lost time due to unusual stoppages. We find that referees systematically favor home teams by… 

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