Fatty acids from fish: the anti-inflammatory potential of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

  title={Fatty acids from fish: the anti-inflammatory potential of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.},
  author={Rebecca Wall and Reynolds Paul Ross and Gerald F. Fitzgerald and Catherine Stanton},
  journal={Nutrition reviews},
  volume={68 5},
Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are precursors of potent lipid mediators, termed eicosanoids, which play an important role in the regulation of inflammation. Eicosanoids derived from n-6 PUFAs (e.g., arachidonic acid) have proinflammatory and immunoactive functions, whereas eicosanoids derived from n-3 PUFAs [e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] have anti-inflammatory properties, traditionally attributed to their ability to inhibit… 

Health Implications of High Dietary Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

Increases in chronic inflammatory diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular disease, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer's disease are increases, so reducing the ratio of (n-3) : (n-6) PUFA in the Western diet may be achieved in the incidence of these chronicinflammatory diseases.

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Impact on Health and Disease Status

The fatty acids of interest include omega-3 and omega-6, depending on the position of the first double bond at third or sixth carbon atom from the methyl end of the fatty acids, which bonds into saturated or mono-/poly-unsaturated fatty acids respectively.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Its Role in Human Health

The present chapter explores in detail the biological functions and dietary benefits of the omega-3 fatty acids in regulating metabolism of the body and its protective role in prevention many diseases.

n-3 Fatty acids and asthma

There have been no major health side effects reported with the dietary supplementation of n-3 fatty acids or their mediators; consequently supplementing with n- 3 fatty acids is an attractive non-pharmacological intervention which may benefit asthma.

Reducing the Dietary Omega-6:Omega-3 Utilizing α-Linolenic Acid; Not a Sufficient Therapy for Attenuating High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obesity Development Nor Related Detrimental Metabolic and Adipose Tissue Inflammatory Outcomes

Reducing the omega-6:omega-3 using α-linolenic acid is not an effective therapy for attenuating obesity and type II diabetes mellitus development and all HFDs, in general, led to similar levels of adiposity, insulin resistance, and AT inflammation.

Modulation of Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Adipokine Synthesis and Secretion by n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

It is suggested that both n-3 and n-6 PUFA are important factors to consider in the development of nutritional strategies for improving adipose tissue inflammation associated with obesity.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids and endocannabinoids in health and disease

How diets based in PUFAs might be linked to ECS and to the maintenance of central and peripheral metabolism, brain plasticity, memory and learning, blood flow, and genesis of neural cells is reviewed.

Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Enriched Cheeses Influence the Levels of Circulating n-3 Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Humans

It is suggested that the improved n-3 HUFA score resulting from ENCH cheese intake may be attributed to increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) activity.

Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Major Cardiovascular Events—A Current View

Although appearing to be a low-risk and cost-effective strategy to improve cardiac health, available evidence demonstrates that omega-3 PUFAs supplementation may be recommended in primary prevention of major cardiovascular events in patients free of known coronary heart disease (CHD), but with high risk.



Dietary modification of inflammation with lipids

  • P. Calder
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • 2002
Clinical studies have reported that oral fish oil supplementation has beneficial effects in rheumatoid arthritis and among some patients with asthma, supporting the idea that the n-3 PUFA in fish oil are antiinflammatory.

Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory mediator production.

Novel antiinflammatory therapies can be developed that take advantage of positive interactions between the dietary fats and existing or newly developed pharmaceutical products.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Inflammation and Autoimmune Diseases

  • A. Simopoulos
  • Medicine, Biology
    Journal of the American College of Nutrition
  • 2002
Animal experiments and clinical intervention studies indicate that omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and, therefore, might be useful in the management of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

Transgenic mice rich in endogenous omega-3 fatty acids are protected from colitis.

The fat-1 transgenic mouse is established as a new experimental model for the study of n-3 PUFA-derived lipid mediators to add insight into the molecular mechanisms of inflammation protection afforded by n-6 PUFA through formation of resolvins and protectins other than inhibition of n -6 PU FA-derived eicosanoid formation.

Plant- and marine-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have differential effects on fasting and postprandial blood lipid concentrations and on the susceptibility of LDL to oxidative modification in moderately hyperlipidemic subjects.

At estimated biologically equivalent intakes, dietary ALA and EPA+DHA have different physiologic effects.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammatory processes and inflammatory bowel diseases.

  • P. Calder
  • Biology
    Molecular nutrition & food research
  • 2008
Clinical outcomes have been variably affected by fish oil, although some trials report improved gut histology, decreased disease activity, use of corticosteroids and relapse.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and immunity

Clinical studies have reported that fish oil supplementation has beneficial effects in rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and among some asthmatics, supporting the idea that the n−3 PUFA in fish oil are antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory.

n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and inflammatory diseases.

  • P. Calder
  • Biology
    The American journal of clinical nutrition
  • 2006
At sufficiently high intakes, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), as found in oily fish and fish oils, decrease the production of inflammatory eicosanoids, cytokines, and reactive oxygen species and the expression of adhesion molecules, and are potentially potent antiinflammatory agents.

Dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids for the prevention of cancer: a review of potential mechanisms.

Several molecular mechanisms whereby n-3 fatty acids may modify the carcinogenic process have been proposed, and influences on transcription factor activity, gene expression, and signal transduction pathways; alteration of estrogen metabolism; increased or decreased production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species; and mechanisms involving insulin sensitivity and membrane fluidity are proposed.

EPA and DHA reduce LPS-induced inflammation responses in HK-2 cells: evidence for a PPAR-gamma-dependent mechanism.

The data demonstrate that both EPA and DHA down-regulate LPS-induced activation of NF-kappaB via a PPAR-gamma-dependent pathway in HK-2 cells, and suggest that PPAR -gamma activation by EPA andDHA may be one of the underlying mechanisms for the beneficial effects of fish oil.