Two hundred twenty-seven consecutive full-term deliveries by cesarean section over a 10-month period were divided into "father present" and "father absent" groups. The father present group tended to have received prenatal care in the private office and to have experienced regional anesthesia more frequently. Apgar scores at one and five minutes were significantly higher when deliveries occurred with the fathers present. The time from skin incision to delivery of neonate was longer but the numbers of transfusions were significantly lower in the father present group. However, when the two groups were further analyzed controlling for anesthesia mode, the differences disappeared with the exception of higher Apgar scores at five minutes with father present and regional anesthesia. No adverse consequences were noted from fathers' presence.