Fate and transport of antibiotic residues and antibiotic resistance genes following land application of manure waste.

@article{CheeSanford2009FateAT,
  title={Fate and transport of antibiotic residues and antibiotic resistance genes following land application of manure waste.},
  author={Joanne C Chee-Sanford and Roderick Ian Mackie and Satoshi Koike and Ivan G. Krapac and Yu-Feng Lin and Anthony C. Yannarell and Scott Maxwell and Rustam I. Aminov},
  journal={Journal of environmental quality},
  year={2009},
  volume={38 3},
  pages={
          1086-108
        }
}
Antibiotics are used in animal livestock production for therapeutic treatment of disease and at subtherapeutic levels for growth promotion and improvement of feed efficiency. It is estimated that approximately 75% of antibiotics are not absorbed by animals and are excreted in waste. Antibiotic resistance selection occurs among gastrointestinal bacteria, which are also excreted in manure and stored in waste holding systems. Land application of animal waste is a common disposal method used in the… 

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