Fatal parasitic meningoencephalomyelitis caused by Halicephalobus deletrix : a case report and review of the literature.

@article{Ondrejka2010FatalPM,
  title={Fatal parasitic meningoencephalomyelitis caused by Halicephalobus deletrix : a case report and review of the literature.},
  author={Sarah L. Ondrejka and Gary W. Procop and Keith K. Lai and Richard A. Prayson},
  journal={Archives of pathology \& laboratory medicine},
  year={2010},
  volume={134 4},
  pages={
          625-9
        }
}
Infection with the saprophagous nematode Halicephalobus species is uncommon but has been reported in horses worldwide. Only 3 human cases have been previously described, all of which have been fatal. We report a fourth fatal case, which occurred in a 39-year-old woman who presented with meningeal signs, altered mental status, and a prodromal pruritic rash. Diagnostic evaluation included an open brain biopsy, which was diagnosed as granulomatous vasculitis. The patient subsequently died after a… 
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The clinical, serological, cytokine, and histopathological findings of a rapidly progressive and eventually fatal meningoencephalitis in a previously healthy human are described and the helminth was finally diagnosed by specific polymerase chain reactions from post mortem tissue.
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The clinical history, necropsy and histological findings presented constitute a typical case of H. gingivalis infection in a horse, never previously described in Portugal to the authors’ best knowledge.
Fatal Human Meningoencephalitis due to Halicephalobus Nematodes, Germany
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The clinical, serological, cytokine, and histopathological findings of a rapidly progressive and eventually fatal meningoencephalitis in a previously healthy human are described and the helminth was finally diagnosed by specific polymerase chain reactions from post mortem tissue.
An outbreak of bovine meningoencephalomyelitis with identification of Halicephalobus gingivalis.
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This is the first scientific publication of H. gingivalis induced meningoencephalomyelitis in ruminants, isolated from the Danish calf and published isolates, collected worldwide from free-living and parasitic stages of the nematode.
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