Fatal battles in common loons: a preliminary analysis

@article{Piper2008FatalBI,
  title={Fatal battles in common loons: a preliminary analysis},
  author={Walter H. Piper and Charles Walcott and John N. Mager and Frank J. Spilker},
  journal={Animal Behaviour},
  year={2008},
  volume={75},
  pages={1109-1115}
}
Theoretical models predict that lethal contests should take place only when animals have severely limited breeding opportunities. Indeed, fatal fighting appears to occur routinely in only a handful of species that fit this mould. Here we report that 16–33% of all territorial evictions in male common loons, Gavia immer, are fatal for the displaced owner; in contrast, females seldom fight to the death for territories despite frequent territorial evictions. Since loons are long-lived and have… 

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