Fatal Fall into a Volcanic Fumarole

  title={Fatal Fall into a Volcanic Fumarole},
  author={Lee F. Cantrell and Michael Young},
  booktitle={Wilderness \& environmental medicine (Print)},
Abstract Fatalities secondary to inhalation of volcanic gases in the United States have rarely been reported. We report the deaths of 3 ski patrol members at a popular California ski resort. After a snowstorm, ski patrol members were fencing off a well-known volcanic fumarole when the snow around the vent collapsed. Two members slid into the deep hole and rapidly lost consciousness. A third member carrying oxygen descended into the hole and also lost consciousness. A fourth member affixed an… 

Forensic diagnostic approach of peri‐volcanic area fatalities: About two cases at piton de la Fournaise

The interpretation of all the forensic data allows us to conclude that the death was secondary to volcanic sulfur gas poisoning, despite the atypical context of this event, and reminds us of the need to respect safety conditions in peri‐volcanic areas.

Health Impact of Volcanic Emissions

Volcanoes form along the edges of tectonic plates. Although it is true that volcanic erup- tions are destructive, these eruptions also have benefits. Volcanic eruptions provide minerals to the

Development and persistence of hazardous atmospheres in a glaciovolcanic cave system—Mount Rainier, Washington, USA

Glaciovolcanic cave systems, including fumarolic ice caves, can present variable atmospheric hazards. The twin summit craters of Mount Rainier, Washington, USA, host the largest fumarolic ice cave

Suicidal Nitrogen Inhalation by use of Scuba Full‐Face Diving Mask

A 29‐year‐old man was found dead lying on the bed in a hotel room in a famous Slovak mountain resort. He had a full‐face diving mask on his face, connected through a diving breath regulator to a

The epidemiology of extreme hiking injuries in volcanic environments.

A review of the epidemiological literature for extreme hikers in volcanic environments reveals a need for well-designed epidemiologic research from volcanic destinations outside of Hawaii that identify the nature and severity of injuries along with the factors contributing to injury incidents.

Hazards of Volcanic Gases

Monitoring of CO 2 in the Nyiragongo Volcano Cracks on Bugarura and Munigi Sites from January 2019 to January 2020

In the area north of Lake Kivu, in the western part of the African Rift, deep fractures allow the uptake of gas, especially carbon dioxide. The Nyiragongo territory is located in the western part of

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The city of Goma and its surrounding villages (Democratic Republic of the Congo, DRC) are among the world’s most densely populated regions strongly affected by volcanic hazards. In 2002, Nyiragongo



Possible asphyxiation from carbon dioxide of a cross-country skier in eastern California: a deadly volcanic hazard.

  • P. M. Hill
  • Geology
    Wilderness & environmental medicine
  • 2000
This case represents the first reported death associated with volcanically produced carbon dioxide in the United States, and disaster and wilderness medicine specialists should be aware of and plan for this potential health hazard associated with active volcanoes.

Methane deaths?: Was it the cause?

The cause originally attributed to these deaths was shown to be in error and the importance of proper investigation of the “scene of occurrence” in order to properly certify the cause of death is demonstrated.

Health Hazards from Volcanic Gases: A Systematic Literature Review

A systematic literature review found few primary studies relating to health hazards of volcanic gases, and chronic exposure to H2S in geothermal areas was associated with increases in nervous system and respiratory diseases.

Carbon dioxide and helium emissions from a reservoir of magmatic gas beneath Mammoth Mountain, California

Carbon dioxide and helium with isotopic compositions indicative of a magmatic source ( δ13C = −4.5 to −5‰, 3He/ 4He = 4.5 to 6.7 RA) are discharging at anomalous rates from Mammoth Mountain, on the

A critical review of the literature on hydrogen sulfide toxicity.

This review of the literature is intended as an evaluative report rather than an annotated bibliography of all the source material examined on hydrogen sulfide, noting information gaps that may require further investigation.

Goldfrank's Toxicologic emergencies

This updated reference presents complete coverage of the clinical management of the poisoned patient and contains new chapters on Chemical and Biological Terrorism, Sports Toxicology, Forensic toxicology, and the Development of Drugs.

Toxicology of hydrogen sulfide.

New approaches to therapy are required, such as the use of agents that actively remove sulfide from its sites of action, which may prove more useful in preventing some of the long-term adverse sequelae than theUse of nitrites and hyperbaric O2, although the latter should be used in cases of pulmonary edema.

U . S . Geological Survey . Helium Discharge at Mammoth Mountain Fumerole