Fat adaptation followed by carbohydrate loading compromises high-intensity sprint performance.

  title={Fat adaptation followed by carbohydrate loading compromises high-intensity sprint performance.},
  author={Lize Havemann and Sacha West and Julia H. Goedecke and Ian A. Macdonald and Alan St. Clair Gibson and Timothy David Noakes and Estelle Lambert},
  journal={Journal of applied physiology},
  volume={100 1},
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a high-fat diet (HFD) followed by 1 day of carbohydrate (CHO) loading on substrate utilization, heart rate variability (HRV), effort perception [rating or perceived exertion (RPE)], muscle recruitment [electromyograph (EMG)], and performance during a 100-km cycling time trial. In this randomized single-blind crossover study, eight well-trained cyclists completed two trials, ingesting either a high-CHO diet (HCD) (68% CHO energy) or an… 

Effect of short-duration lipid supplementation on fat oxidation during exercise and cycling performance.

The short-term intake of a lipid supplement in combination with a glycogen-loading diet designed to boost intramyocellular lipids while avoiding fat adaptation did not alter substrate oxidation during exercise or 1-hour cycling performance.

The effects of a three-week restricted carbohydrate dieton exercise metabolism and performance of three cyclists

The RCD increased whole-body fat oxidation, promoted positive subjective dietary habits and decreased body fat amongst amateur cyclists, however, these outcomes did not translate into improved exercise performance.

High-fat diet overrules the effects of training on fiber-specific intramyocellular lipid utilization during exercise.

It is concluded that a HFD stimulates net IMCL degradation by increasing basal IMCL content during exercise in type I and especially IIa fibers and provides adequate amounts of carbohydrates to maintain high muscle glycogen content during training and does not impair exercise-induced Muscle glycogen breakdown.

Effects of a low- or a high-carbohydrate diet on performance, energy system contribution, and metabolic responses during supramaximal exercise.

A low-CHO diet reduces both performance and total aerobic energy provision during supramaximal exercise, and is associated with an earlier attainment of peak plasma K(+) concentration.

Fat adaptation in well-trained athletes: effects on cell metabolism.

Compared with an isoenergetic CHO diet for the same intervention period, this "dietary periodization" protocol increases the rate of whole-body and muscle fat oxidation while attenuating the rates of muscle glycogenolysis during submaximal exercise.

Effect of a Ketogenic Diet on Submaximal Exercise Capacity and Efficiency in Runners.

A 31-d ketogenic diet can preserve submaximal exercise capacity in trained endurance athletes; however, endurance variability increases.

Effects of a Short-Term “Fat Adaptation with Carbohydrate Restoration” Diet on Metabolic Responses and Exercise Performance in Well-Trained Runners

It is suggested that a short-term (six days) FACR diet may facilitate increased fat oxidation and submaximal exercise economy but does not improve 5 km-TT performance.

Impact of intensive high-fat ingestion in the early stage of recovery from exercise training on substrate metabolism during exercise in humans.

The results suggest that intensive high-fat ingestion in the early stage of recovery from ET for a few days until the day before exercise was an effective means of eliciting a CHO-sparing effect during exercise by enhancing fat metabolism.

Effect of carbohydrate availability on time to exhaustion in exercise performed at two different intensities.

The results suggest that muscle glycogen depletion followed by a period of a low carbohydrate diet impairs high-intensity exercise performance.

“Train-High Sleep-Low” Dietary Periodization Does Not Alter Ventilatory Strategies During Cycling Exercise

THSL impairs performance following the dietary intervention, but this occurs with no alteration of ventilatory measures.



Effects of fat adaptation and carbohydrate restoration on prolonged endurance exercise.

Compared with a high-CHO diet, fat oxidation during exercise increased after fat-adapt and remained elevated above baseline even after 1 day of a high -CHO diet and increased CHO availability.

Effect of fat adaptation and carbohydrate restoration on metabolism and performance during prolonged cycling.

These data show significant metabolic adaptations with a brief period of high-fat intake, which persist even after restoration of CHO availability, however, there was no evidence of a clear benefit of fat adaptation to cycling performance.

Metabolic adaptations to a high-fat diet in endurance cyclists.

Ingestion of a HFD for as little as 5 to 10 days significantly altered substrate utilization during submaximal exercise but did not attenuate the 40-km time-trial performance.

Differential effects of dietary carbohydrate on RPE at the lactate and ventilatory thresholds.

It was concluded that the perception of exertion as becoming "somewhat hard" to "hard" is more closely linked to TVE than to TLAC.

Adaptations to short-term high-fat diet persist during exercise despite high carbohydrate availability.

Adaptations to a short-term high-fat diet persisted in the face of high CHO availability before and during exercise, but failed to confer a performance advantage during a TT lasting approximately 25 min undertaken after 2 h of submaximal cycling.

Comparison of sympatho-adrenal activity during endurance exercise performed under high- and low-carbohydrate diet conditions.

Effects of varied carbohydrate (CHO) content in the diet on sympatho-adrenal activity to endurance exercise during which blood sugar was kept over a preexercise level were studied in five male

Interaction of training and diet on metabolism and endurance during exercise in man.

It is concluded that ingesting a fat‐rich diet during an endurance training programme is detrimental to improvement in endurance, and the study suggests that the decrease in RER usually seen after training when exercising at the same absolute intensity as before training can be prevented by a carbohydrate‐ rich diet.

Effect of short-term fat adaptation on high-intensity training.

PURPOSE To determine the effect of short-term (3-d) fat adaptation on high-intensity exercise training in seven competitive endurance athletes (maximal O2 uptake 5.0 +/- 0.5 L x min(-1), mean +/-SD).

Long-term fat diet adaptation effects on performance, training capacity, and fat utilization.

  • J. Helge
  • Biology
    Medicine and science in sports and exercise
  • 2002
The final question addressed in this review is which of these source(s) of fat contributes to the increased oxidation of fat during submaximal exercise after long-term fat diet adaptation.