Stilbenes are grapevine phytoalexins. These highly fluorescent molecules are generally analyzed by HPLC. This technique allows accurate assay of different stilbenes, but it is destructive, time-consuming, and neglects their spatial distribution. This is why we have tested a new method based on in vivo fluorescence using commercial spectrofluorometers that allowed fast and local assessment of stilbene content in grapevine leaves. Stilbene synthesis in grapevine Vitis vinifera var. Muscat Ottonel leaves was induced by Plasmopara viticola inoculation or UV-C irradiation. Fluorescence was measured both from the abaxial and adaxial sides of leaves, then stilbene content was analyzed by HPLC. It varied from 0 in control leaves to 15 mg g-1 dry weight in UV-treated leaves. Highly significant regressions were found between HPLC stilbene content and the corresponding leaf UV-induced blue fluorescence. Thus, in vivo fluorescence is a good tool for a rapid study of stilbenes synthesis in grapevine leaves that can potentially be extended to other fluorescent molecules.