Fascin Plays a Role in Stress Fiber Organization and Focal Adhesion Disassembly

Abstract

Migrating cells nucleate focal adhesions (FAs) at the cell front and disassemble them at the rear to allow cell translocation. FAs are made of a multiprotein complex, the adhesome, which connects integrins to stress fibers made of mixed-polarity actin filaments [1-5]. Myosin II-driven contraction of stress fibers generates tensile forces that promote adhesion growth [6-9]. However, tension must be tightly controlled, because if released, FAs disassemble [3, 10-12]. Conversely, excess tension can cause abrupt cell detachment resulting in the loss of a major part of the adhesion [9, 12]. Thus, both adhesion growth and disassembly depend on tensile forces generated by stress fiber contraction, but how this contractility is regulated remains unclear. Here, we show that the actin-bundling protein fascin crosslinks the actin filaments into parallel bundles at the stress fibers' termini. Fascin prevents myosin II entry at this region and inhibits its activity in vitro. In fascin-depleted cells, polymerization of actin filaments at the stress fiber termini is slower, the actin cytoskeleton is reorganized into thicker stress fibers with a higher number of myosin II molecules, FAs are larger and less dynamic, and consequently, traction forces that cells exert on their substrate are larger. We also show that fascin dissociation from stress fibers is required to allow their severing by cofilin, leading to efficient disassembly of FAs.

DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2014.05.023

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@article{Elkhatib2014FascinPA, title={Fascin Plays a Role in Stress Fiber Organization and Focal Adhesion Disassembly}, author={Nadia Elkhatib and Matthew B. Neu and Carla Zensen and Kurt M. Schmoller and Daniel Louvard and Andreas R. Bausch and Timo Betz and Danijela Matic Vignjevic}, journal={Current Biology}, year={2014}, volume={24}, pages={1492-1499} }