Farming and the Fate of Wild Nature

  title={Farming and the Fate of Wild Nature},
  author={Rhys. E. Green and Stephen J. Cornell and J{\"o}rn P. W. Scharlemann and Andrew Balmford},
  pages={550 - 555}
World food demand is expected to more than double by 2050. Decisions about how to meet this challenge will have profound effects on wild species and habitats. We show that farming is already the greatest extinction threat to birds (the best known taxon), and its adverse impacts look set to increase, especially in developing countries. Two competing solutions have been proposed: wildlife-friendly farming (which boosts densities of wild populations on farmland but may decrease agricultural yields… 

Land for Food & Land for Nature?

Opinions on how to limit the immense impact of agriculture on wild species are divided. Some think it best to retain as much wildlife as possible on farms, even at the cost of lowering yield

Food and Biodiversity

Density-yield curves help evaluate whether land sharing or land sparing most benefits biodiversity, and draw on surveys of biodiversity in landscapes in Ghana and India to provide some valuable hard data to inform this discussion.

Assessing strategies to reconcile agriculture and bird conservation in the temperate grasslands of South America

Examining how bird population densities changed with farm yield in the Campos of Brazil and Uruguay suggests that increasing yields in some areas while reducing grazing to low levels elsewhere may be the best option for bird conservation in these grasslands.

The environmental costs and benefits of high-yield farming

This study argues that high-yield farming impacts should be measured per unit of production and shows that viewed this way, some land-efficient systems have less impact than lower-yielding alternatives, and suggests that trade-offs among key cost metrics are not as ubiquitous as sometimes perceived.

Land sparing to make space for species dependent on natural habitats and high nature value farmland

A novel ‘three-compartment’ land-sparing approach, in which about one-third of spared land is assigned to very low-yield agriculture and the remainder to natural habitats, resulted in least-reduced projected future populations for more species.

Aligning biodiversity conservation and agricultural production in heterogeneous landscapes.

It is found that when species' abundance and agricultural yields vary across landscapes, the optimal strategy to minimize trade-offs is rarely pure land sparing or land sharing, and instead, landscapes that combine elements of both strategies are optimal.

Sustainable Agriculture and Plant Breeding

World population is expected to increase from the current 6.7 billion to more than 10 billion people by the year 2050. This 45 % increase in the current world population will create demand for

Agricultural farming alters predator–prey interactions in nearby natural habitats

Compared the foraging behaviours and abundances of the red fox and two species of gerbils, close to and distant from farms, and during two moon phases, could suggest that indicators of predation risk are not universal, and their effectiveness may depend indirectly on anthropogenic activities, such as agricultural farming.

Reconciling Food Production and Biodiversity Conservation: Land Sharing and Land Sparing Compared

Compared crop yields and densities of bird and tree species across gradients of agricultural intensity in southwest Ghana and northern India, land sparing is a more promising strategy for minimizing negative impacts of food production, at both current and anticipated future levels of production.



Biodiversity Impacts of Some Agricultural Commodity Production Systems

Despite centuries of urbanization and industrialization, around half of the world’s people still live as subsistence or small-scale farmers. The production of agricultural export commodities

Book Review: Ecoagriculture; Strategies to Feed the World and Save Wild Biodiversity

Although food production systems for the world's rural poor typically have had devastating effects on the planet's wealth of genes, species and ecosystems, that need not be the case in the future. In

Agricultural intensification and the collapse of Europe's farmland bird populations

  • P. DonaldR. GreenM. Heath
  • Environmental Science, Economics
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 2001
The results suggest that recent trends in agriculture have had deleterious and measurable effects on bird populations on a continental scale and predict that the introduction of EU agricultural policies into former communist countries hoping to accede to the EU in the near future will result in significant declines in the important bird populations there.

Population Pressure and the Food Supply System in the Developing World

WHETHER FOOD PRODUCnON can keep pace with the demand for improved diets for a rapidly growing world population is a question that has been debated vigorously since it was raised by Malthus two

Conservation of tropical forest birds in countryside habitats

The pressing need to increase agricultural production often seems at odds with conserving biodiversity. We find that if managed properly, the tropical countryside may provide a substantial

Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices

A doubling in global food demand projected for the next 50 years poses huge challenges for the sustainability both of food production and of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and the services they

Forecasting Agriculturally Driven Global Environmental Change

Should past dependences of the global environmental impacts of agriculture on human population and consumption continue, 109 hectares of natural ecosystems would be converted to agriculture by 2050, accompanied by 2.4- to 2.7-fold increases in nitrogen- and phosphorus-driven eutrophication of terrestrial, freshwater, and near-shore marine ecosystems.

How effective are European agri‐environment schemes in conserving and promoting biodiversity?

Summary 1. Increasing concern over the environmental impact of agriculture in Europe has led to the introduction of agri-environment schemes. These schemes compensate farmers financially for any loss

Extinction risk from climate change

Estimates of extinction risks for sample regions that cover some 20% of the Earth's terrestrial surface show the importance of rapid implementation of technologies to decrease greenhouse gas emissions and strategies for carbon sequestration.

Farming and birds in Europe: the common agricultural policy and its implications for bird conservation

Introduction to farming and birds in Europe, D.J. Pain, J. Dixon Europe's changing farmed landscapes, C. Potter the evolution of Common Agricultural Policy and the incorporation of the environmental