Familiarity and pop-out in visual search

@article{Wang1994FamiliarityAP,
  title={Familiarity and pop-out in visual search},
  author={Qinqin Wang and Patrick Cavanagh and Marc A. Green},
  journal={Perception \& Psychophysics},
  year={1994},
  volume={56},
  pages={495-500}
}
In this paper, we report that when the low-level features of targets and distractors are held constant, visual search performance can be strongly influenced by familiarity. In the first condition, a was the target amid as distractors, and vice versa. The response time increased steeply as a function of number of distractors (82 msec/item). When the same stimuli were rotated by 90° (the second condition), however, they became familiar patterns— and—and gave rise to much shallower search… 
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The results show that a simple 45° rotation of a stimulus can affect search efficiency significantly—but only when this rotation bestows meaning, or familiarity, to that stimulus.
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In Experiment 1, subjects performed a probe recognition task embedded within a task in which they searched for a single target letter (either a T or an L) in a field of distractor letters (Ls or Ts,
Eye movements and familiarity effects in visual search
TLDR
A hypothesis based on low-level physiological processes is introduced to account for the familiarity effect, and results indicated comparably long, but fewer fixations when distractors are familiar.
Prioritization in visual search: Visual marking is not dependent on a mnemonic search
TLDR
It is concluded that the mechanism of VM is distinct from mnemonic and/or serial inhibition-of-return processes as involved in search, although it is also discussed possible links to more global and flexible inhibition- of- return processes not necessarily related to search.
Searching for One Versus Two Identical Targets: When Visual Search Has a Memory
TLDR
The present study sought to clarify the amnesic-search hypothesis by investigating whether memory processes can guide search in other contexts in which targets also have the potential to be tagged.
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