False morel mushroom gyromitra esculenta toxin: N-methyl-N-formylhydrazine carcinogenesis in mice

  title={False morel mushroom gyromitra esculenta toxin: N-methyl-N-formylhydrazine carcinogenesis in mice},
  author={B{\'e}la T{\'o}th and K D Patil and J. Erickson and Robert J. Kupper},
N-Methyl-N-formylhydrazine was administered in drinking water as a 0.0039% solution to randomly bred Swiss albino mice for life starting from 6 weeks of age. The compound induced tumors of lungs, livers, blood vessels, gall bladder and bile ducts. The tumor incidences in these five tissues were 77, 46, 21, 10 and 7%, while in the untreated controls they were 18, 1, 6, 0 and 0%, respectively. Histopathologically, the tumors were classified as adenomas and adenocarcinomas of lungs, benign… 
Tumorigenicity of minute dose levels of N-methyl-N-formylhydrazine of Gyromitra esculenta
N-methyl-N-formylhydrazine is a stable constituent of the edible false morel mushroom Gyromitra esculenta and the environmental significance is discussed, in view of the carcinogenicity of minute doses of this chemical.
Gyromitra esculenta (Persoon ex Fries) mushrooms have been responsible for severe intoxications and even deaths. Clinical data are characterized primarily by vomiting and diarrhea and after a while
Lack of carcinogenicity of agaritine by subcutaneous administration in mice
The field is discussed in the light of the obtained results, since some of the breakdown products of A were shown to be carcinogenic in mice and the mushroom itself was found to be mutagenic.
Anti-inflammatory effect of the polysaccharides of golden needle mushroom in burned rats.
1,2-di-n-butylhydrazine dihydrochloride carcinogenesis in mice
A solution of 0.0625% 1,2-di-n-butylhydrazine dihydrochloride (1,2-DBH) was given continuously in the drinking water of 6-week-old randomly bred albino Swiss mice for the remainder of their lives.
Actual new cancer-causing hydrazines, hydrazides, and hydrazones
  • B. Tóth
  • Medicine
    Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
  • 2004
Twenty actual new cancer-causing hydrazines, hydrazides, and hydrazones of synthetic or natural origin are described and the human population should be warned against the use of this hazardous class of chemicals.
Second chronological supplement to the Carcinogenic Potency Database: standardized results of animal bioassays published through December 1984 and by the National Toxicology Program through May 1986.
This paper is the second chronological supplement to the Carcinogenic Potency Database, and reports the same information about each experiment in the same plot format as the earlier papers: e.g., the species and strain of test animal, the route and duration of compound administration, dose level and other aspects of experimental protocol, histopathology and tumor incidence.


Tumors induced in mice by N-methyl-N-formylhydrazine of the false morel Gyromitra esculenta.
Since the edible false morel Gyromitra esculenta contains a high amount of MFH, the human population should be dissuaded from consumption of this dangerous mushroom.
Methylhydrazine tumorigenesis in Syrian golden hamsters and the morphology of malignant histiocytomas.
A 0.01% solution of methylhydrazine was administered daily in the drinking water of 6-week-old randomly bred Syrian golden hamsters for the remainder of their lifetime, giving rise to malignant histiocytomas of liver and tumors of the cecum.
Short-term peroral toxicity of ethylidene gyromitrin in rabbits and chickens.
Formation of methylhydrazine from acetaldehyde N-methyl-N-formylhydrazone, a component of Gyromitra esculenta.
These findings imply that consumption of G. esculenta could present a carcinogenic, as well as an acutely toxic, health hazard.
Synthetic and naturally occurring hydrazines as possible cancer causative agents.
Three naturally occurring hydrazine compounds are found in the wild edible mushroom, Gyromitra esculenta, and beta-N-[gamma-L(+)-glutamyl]-4-hydroxymethylphenylhydrazine and 4-Hydroxym methylphenylHydrazine, which are find in the commonly eaten cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus.
A case of fatal poisoning by Gyromitra esculenta
Clinical data were characterized initially by vomiting and diarrhea, and subsequently by hypotension, anuria, jaundice, hemiplegia, and coma, and prominent pathologic findings were brain edema, necrosis, fatty degeneration of the liver, nephrosis, scattered petechiae, and small hemorrhages.
Multipotential carcinogenesis with urethan in the Syrian golden hamster.
Summary Urethan in the drinking water (0.2–0.4 per cent) was administered to 5- to 7-week-old Syrian golden hamsters and continued for 42 weeks with an 8-week interval between the 40th and 48th week.
Hydrazine, methylhydrazine and methylhydrazine sulfate carcinogenesis in swiss mice. failure of ammonium hydroxide to interfere in the development of tumors
  • B. Tóth
  • Chemistry
    International journal of cancer
  • 1972
Hydrazine and methylhydrazine sulfate significantly increased the incidence of lung tumors in Swiss mice, while methylhydazine enhanced the development of this neoplasm by shortening its latent period, and the ammonium hydroxide treatments in Swiss and C3H mice were without carcinogenic effect.
Some new toxic compounds in false morels,Gyromitra esculenta
  • H. Pyysalo
  • Chemistry, Biology
  • 2004
The above results clearly indicate that high concentrations of inorganic phosphorous decrease the synthesis of tryptophan, ultimately inhibitingThe synthesis of alkaloids.