False memories: Phenomena, theories, and implications.

  title={False memories: Phenomena, theories, and implications.},
  author={Melanie C. Steffens and Silvia Mecklenbr{\"a}uker},
  journal={Zeitschrift Fur Psychologie-journal of Psychology},
In recent years, there has been an explosion of research on false memories: the subjective experience of remembering something if that something did apparently not happen in reality. We review a range of findings concerning this phenomenon: False memories of details and of whole events by adults and children, as well as false memories of words in laboratory experiments (in the DRM paradigm). We also briefly discuss the converse phenomenon: Evidence of forgetting or repression of significant… 
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An earwitness experiment in which some participants were exposed to discrepant cowitness information and provided their recollections repeatedly and under different conditions yielded no evidence for false memory, and the findings clearly argue that informational rather than normative influence plays a dominant role.
Psychophysiological investigation of false memory in amnesiac patients
A new false memory task that offers a language-free alternative to the classic Deese- Roediger-McDermot paradigm (DRM) along with some other improvements introduced to bias false memory production is validated and true and false memory ERP signal appeared to be equivalent in localization but different in voltage.
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By using a modified version of the misinformation paradigm, this thesis examined a new and ecologically realistic domain for the investigation of false memories: Brands retroactively replaced in


Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists.
False memories—either remembering events that never happened, or remembering them quite differently from the way they happened—have recently captured the attention of both psychologists and the
False and Recovered Memories in the Laboratory and Clinic: A Review of Experimental and Clinical Evidence
It is suggested that the critical questions are how common is each type of memory phenomenon, what factors lead to the occurrence of each, and under what conditions is each possible and/or likely to occur.
False memory following rapidly presented lists: the element of surprise
This article examines a false memory phenomenon, the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) effect, consisting of high false alarms for a prototype word (e.g., SLEEP) following a study list consisting of its
False memories of childhood experiences.
We conducted two experiments to investigate if college students would create false memories of childhood experiences in response to misleading information and repeated interviews. In both experiments
Importing perceived features into false memories
Perception may be even more pernicious than imagination in contributing to false memories, as false memories that imported perceived features were subjectively more like memories for perceived events.
Influences of intentional and unintentional forgetting on false memories.
The results suggest that forgetting can increase or decrease false memories, depending on whether such forgetting reflects impaired access to an entire episode or retrieval competition among elements of an episode.
The reality of repressed memories.
  • E. Loftus
  • Psychology
    The American psychologist
  • 1993
There has been a rise in reported memories of childhood sexual abuse that were allegedly repressed for many years, and people with recently unearthed memories are suing alleged perpetrators for events that happened 20, 30, even 40 or more years earlier.
"Remembering" words not presented in lists: relevance to the current recovered/false memory controversy.
  • J. Freyd, D. Gleaves
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 1996
The present authors urge caution in making such a generalization, arguing that there are critical differences between Roediger and McDermott's findings and contested memories of abuse.
Fuzzy-Trace Theory and False Memory
A key problem confronting theories of false memory is that false-memory phenomena are so diverse: Some are characteristic of controlled laboratory tasks, others of everyday life; some occur for