False awakenings in light of the dream protoconsciousness theory: a study in lucid dreamers.

  title={False awakenings in light of the dream protoconsciousness theory: a study in lucid dreamers.},
  author={Giorgio Buzzi},
  journal={International Journal of Dream Research},
  • G. Buzzi
  • Published 31 October 2011
  • Psychology
  • International Journal of Dream Research
The results of a web-survey aimed at analyzing the phenomenology of False Awakenings (FAs) (sleep-related experiences in which the subjects erroneously believe that they have woken up, only to discover subsequently that the apparent awakening was part of a dream) were revised in light of Hobson’s recent dream protoconsciousness theory.   A web-questionnaire had been previously submitted to three web-sites dedicated to lucid dreamers, a kind of subjects in which FAs have been reported to occur… 

Tables from this paper

Dreaming of the sleep lab
The phenomenon of dreaming about the laboratory when participating in a sleep study is common. The content of such dreams draws upon episodic memory fragments of the participant’s lab experience,
Theories of dreaming and lucid dreaming: An integrative review towards sleep, dreaming and consciousness
The present review gives an overview on common theories of dreaming with a specific emphasis on how they are able to explain lucid dreaming. The theories are grouped either to such that describe
Enactive or inactive? Cranially envatted dream experience and the extended conscious mind
When we dream, it is often assumed, we are isolated from the external environment. It is also commonly believed that dreams can be, at times, accurate, convincing replicas of waking experience. Here
Lucid Nightmares: A Survey of Their Frequency, Features, and Factors in Lucid Dreamers
This article reports the first systematic study on lucid nightmares—terrifying lucid dreams with a lack of dream control. An online survey was completed by 634 participants, of whom 574 had had
Dreaming about dreaming: Analysis of a long dream series
The present study analyzed the frequency of “dreaming about dreaming” in a long dream series (N = 10,148 dreams) reported by a single participant. Overall, about 1.5% of the dreams of the series
How bizarre? A pluralist approach to dream content
A pluralist approach to dream content is introduced that highlights the philosophical and empirical implications of treating dreaming as a highly varied experience that can be anywhere on a spectrum from truly bizarre and incoherent to wake-like and mundane.
I could do that in my sleep: skilled performance in dreams
The experience of skilled action occurs in dreams if we take dream reports at face value. However, what these reports indicate requires nuanced analysis. It is uncertain what it means to perform any
Dreaming of a stable world: vision and action in sleep
It is argued that imagination and illusion views do not satisfactorily explain away the problem of vision and action in sleep and current theory of visual perception may have to be expanded to account for how the dreaming mind generates a stable world in which the authors track and visually explore mind-generated objects.
Brain basis of self: self-organization and lessons from dreaming
  • D. Kahn
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Front. Psychol.
  • 2013
The article discusses the brain basis of the self by reviewing studies of brain injured patients, discussing brain imaging studies in normal brain functioning when focused, when daydreaming and when asleep and dreaming.
Relationships between sleep paralysis and sleep quality: current insights
  • D. Denis
  • Medicine
    Nature and science of sleep
  • 2018
Future research needs to focus on longitudinal designs to disentangle the direction of effects and more typically employ a broader assessment of sleep paralysis that better captures associated features such as hallucinations, fear, and distress.


Lucid dreaming: a state of consciousness with features of both waking and non-lucid dreaming.
The data show that lucid dreaming constitutes a hybrid state of consciousness with definable and measurable differences from waking and from REM sleep, particularly in frontal areas.
REM sleep and dreaming: towards a theory of protoconsciousness
  • J. Hobson
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Nature Reviews Neuroscience
  • 2009
The theory advanced here emphasizes data that suggest that REM sleep may constitute a protoconscious state, providing a virtual reality model of the world that is of functional use to the development and maintenance of waking consciousness.
Varieties of Lucid Dreaming Experience
What can we conclude from the above quotations? Certainly nothing regarding the nature of eroticism in the lucid dream state. Rather, they illustrate that the experience of lucid dreaming is subject
Waking dreams and other metachoric experiences.
  • C. Green
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Psychiatric journal of the University of Ottawa : Revue de psychiatrie de l'Universite d'Ottawa
  • 1990
The name of metachoric experience was given to one in which the whole of the environment was replaced by a hallucinatory one, although this may provide a precise replica of the physical world and appear to be completely continuous with normal experience.
Lucid Dreaming: The Paradox of Consciousness During Sleep
1. Definition, Illustrations and Historial Backgroung 2. Lucid and Non-Lucid Dreams Compared 3. The Pre-lucid State 4. Perceptual Qualities of Lucid Dreams 5. Memory, Intellect and Emotional Quality
Dreaming and the brain: Toward a cognitive neuroscience of conscious states
A three-dimensional model with specific examples from normally and abnormally changing conscious states of REM sleep dreaming is presented, suggesting that there are isomorphisms between the phenomenology and the physiology of dreams.
Hypnagogic and Hypnopompic Hallucinations during Sleep Paralysis: Neurological and Cultural Construction of the Night-Mare
A three-factor structural model of HHEs based on their relations both to cultural narratives and REM neurophysiology is developed and tested with several large samples and central features of the model developed here are consistent with recent work on hallucinations associated with hypnosis and schizophrenia.
Laboratory-documented hallucination during sleep-onset REM period in a normal subject.
A unique case of hallucination without sleep paralysis during the sleep-onset REM period in a normal individual is observed, which may resemble sleep paralysis with regard to its physiological and psychological background, and the discrimination of these two phenomena may depend on the subject's own awareness of muscle-tone inhibition.
EMDR: a putative neurobiological mechanism of action.
  • R. Stickgold
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Journal of clinical psychology
  • 2002
It is proposed that the repetitive redirecting of attention in EMDR induces a neurobiological state, similar to that of REM sleep, which is optimally configured to support the cortical integration of traumatic memories into general semantic networks.
Individual Differences in Conscious Experience
1. Preface 2. Individual Differences in Subjective Experience: First-Person Constraints on Theories of Consciousness, Subconsciousness, and Self-Consciousness (by Kunzendorf, Robert G.) 3. I.