Faecal Progestagen Profiles in Wild Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum)

  title={Faecal Progestagen Profiles in Wild Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum)},
  author={A. C. van der Goot and F. Dalerum and A. Ganswindt and G. Martin and R. Millar and M. Paris},
Knowledge of the reproductive biology of wild animals can provide valuable information for the development of appropriate in situ and ex situ management plans. The present study aimed to establish a non-invasive protocol for monitoring faecal progestagen metabolite (FPM) patterns in wild female southern white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum simum). Six adult females at Lapalala Wilderness, South Africa, were tracked and accurately identified at least once every week. Three animals gave birth… Expand
Profiling patterns of fecal 20-oxopregnane concentrations during ovarian cycles in free-ranging southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum).
Monitoring cyclic activity in a wild population of southern white rhinoceros at Lapalala Wilderness, South Africa, by measuring the concentrations of immunoreactive fecal progestagen metabolites indicates that the irregular cyclicity reported for white rhino housed in zoos and animal parks may result from conditions in captivity and account for reduced fertility. Expand
Reproductive physiology in the wild white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum): new insights for enhanced breeding success
The aim is to control estrus and ovulation in white rhinoceros using a synthetic progestagen and slow-release GnRH analogue. Expand
Features of reproduction and assisted reproduction in the white (Ceratotherium simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceros
In this review, the current knowledge of the reproduction of the rhinoceros is summarized and the horse has been proposed as a suitable model to study reproduction and artificial reproductive techniques in the rhInoceros. Expand
Monitoring and controlling ovarian function in the rhinoceros.
Despite their size and potentially dangerous demeanor, the rhinoceros has been a preferred subject of wildlife reproductive scientists because of the ability to utilize insightful tools like non-invasive hormone metabolite monitoring and transrectal ultrasonography. Expand
Ovulation induction in anovulatory southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) without altrenogest
It is shown that ovulation can be induced efficiently with exogenous hormones using a single treatment protocol, which can lead to improved genetic management of captive populations acting as insurance against extinction. Expand


Faecal progesterone metabolite analysis for non-invasive monitoring of reproductive function in the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).
Two thirds of white rhinoceroses in this study had erratic or missing luteal activity, whereas variable cycles of 4-10 weeks in length were evident in six females, and regular oestrous cycles of 10 weeks inlength were found in two animals. Expand
Combined serial ultrasonography and fecal progestin analysis for reproductive evaluation of the female white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum): Preliminary results
The value of combining the complementary techniques of ultrasonographic “mapping” of events with fecal hormone assay to enhance the accuracy of reproductive monitoring is illustrated. Expand
The effect of long non-reproductive periods on the genital health in captive female white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum simum, C.s. cottoni).
The data suggests that the development of reproductive pathology and ovarian inactivity in white rhinoceros is an age-related consequence of long non-reproductive periods and can be prevented with the achievement of at least one pregnancy. Expand
Concentrations of faecal immunoreactive progestagen metabolites during the oestrous cycle and pregnancy in the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis michaeli).
It was concluded that several immunoreactive progestagens are present in the faeces of black rhinoceroses and that their measurement with EIA enables non-invasive monitoring of the oestrous cycle and pregnancy. Expand
Analysis of the European captive Southern white rhinoceros Ceratotherium simum simum population using the International Studbook for the African White Rhinoceros (2001–2004) and integrating reproductive health findings
It is necessary to increase the genetically contributing subpopulation and to achieve a reproduction capacity that surpasses the rate currently possible with natural mating to realize a 1% population increase at the 2001–2004 death rate, reproduction would have to increase by 214%. Expand
Non-invasive assessment of oestrous cycles and evaluation of reproductive seasonality in the female wild black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor).
Female wild black rhinoceroses in Zimbabwe were monitored non-invasively using faecal progesterone metabolite analysis and observation of reproductive behaviour, finding that the period of optimum fertility in the Southern hemisphere coincided with the late spring and early summer, and corresponded to the early rainy season, providing the lactating female with the most suitable environment in terms of nutritional requirements. Expand
Reproductive cycle length and pregnancy in the southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) as determined by fecal pregnane analysis and observations of mating behavior
It is argued that these approximately monthly cycles represent the typical reproductive cycle for southern white rhinoceros and should be useful for captive breeding efforts for this threatened species. Expand
Comparative Analysis of Gonadal and Adrenal Activity in the Black and White Rhinoceros in North America by Noninvasive Endocrine Monitoring
Fecal steroid analysis identified a number of differences in hormonal secretory dynamics between the black and white rhinoceros that may be related to differences in reproductive rates in captivity. Expand
Fecal 20-oxo-pregnane concentrations in free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) treated with porcine zona pellucida vaccine.
Results indicate the presence of ovarian activity amongst pZP-treated female African elephants in 2 yr after initial immunization, and earlier determination of efficacy was established via fecal hormone analysis with no pregnancies determined 22 mo post-treatment and onward. Expand
Reproductive soundness of captive southern and northern white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum simum, C.s. cottoni): evaluation of male genital tract morphology and semen quality before and after cryopreservation.
The results indicate that low rate of reproduction in captivity can be attributed to reduced male reproductive fitness and changes in management of white rhinoceroses may positively affect male reproductive function. Expand