This study examined the prevalence of and risk factors predicting cognitive impairment among elders in southern Thailand. Four-hundred Thai elders were administered five interview-based questionnaires that assessed demographic characteristics, cognitive function, depression, independent activities of daily living, and social connections. Although most of the elders had normal cognitive function, approximately 15% experienced cognitive impairment. Though nine of the 10 risk factors examined were identified as being associated with cognitive impairment, only a lack of formal education, female gender, depression, and physical inactivity were found to be significant predictors of cognitive impairment. The results suggested that elders with risk factors should be assessed for cognitive impairment. Depression, and deficits in activities of daily living and educational activities should be addressed and corrected to improve elders' cognitive abilities.