Factors controlling riffle-scale hyporheic exchange flows and their seasonal changes in a gaining stream: A three-dimensional groundwater flow model

Abstract

[1] Subsurface flow within a single riffle of a low-gradient gravel bed stream was modeled in three dimensions using MODFLOW, a finite difference groundwater flow model. Model simulations showed that exchange flows can only occur in this low-gradient, gaining stream because of a zone of alluvial sediment around the stream that has much higher permeability… (More)

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