Introduction: Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) has produced satisfactory clinical outcomes; however, all previous reports have only included evaluations by surgeon-based methods. The purpose of this study was to investigate patient-based surgical outcomes and the factors associated with patient satisfaction for PLIF. Methods: Patients who underwent PLIF for lumbar spondylolisthesis were reviewed (n=443). The average follow-up period was 8 years. Surgical outcomes were assessed using an original questionnaire, a numerical rating scale (NRS), the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score, and the recovery rate. The original questionnaire consisted of five categories, with patient-evaluated score out of 100 points for surgery, satisfaction, improvement, recommendation to others, and willingness to undergo repeat surgery on a 5-point scale. According to the questionnaire responses, patient-based outcomes were divided into three groups: positive, intermediate, and negative and were compared with the NRS, SF-36, and JOA scores. Furthermore, factors associated with patient satisfaction were examined. Results: A total of 273 patients responded. Response rate was 62%. The average patient-evaluated score for surgery was 82 points. In terms of satisfaction section, positive, intermediate, and negative response rates were 82%, 7%, and 11%, respectively. With respect to other sections, positive, intermediate, and negative response rates were 87%, 7%, and 6% in improvement section; 66%, 23%, and 11% in recommending section; and 72%, 18%, and 10% in repeat section, respectively. The average preand postoperative JOA scores were 12 and 24, respectively. Significant correlations were detected between patient-based surgical outcomes and the NRS scores, physical component scores of the SF-36, and the JOA score. Postoperative permanent motor loss and multiple revision surgery were the major factors related to a negative response. Conclusions: High satisfaction rate to PLIF and significant correlation between patientand surgeon-based surgical outcomes were detected. Postoperative permanent motor loss and multiple revision surgery were the major factors related to a negative response.