The review of literature devoted to the influence of the different methods of longterm preservation on the survival, physiological and biochemical properties of microorganisms: at low and ultralow temperatures, freeze-drying, drying, storage under the mineral oil etc. is given. The microorganisms viability depends on their nature, age and density of population, storage and recovery conditions of cells. Some features of the industrial microorganisms storage have been marked. The different hypotheses concerning the mechanism of preservation, injury and reactivation of microorganisms under the action of external factors during their storage are being discussed.