Surveillance Among Men Who have Sex with Men in the United States: A Comparison of Web-Based and Venue-Based Samples
BACKGROUND Annual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is considered a key strategy for HIV prevention for men who have sex with men (MSM). In Puerto Rico, HIV research has primarily focused on injection drug use, yet male-to-male sexual transmission has been increasing in recent years. METHODS Cross-sectional data from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system collected in 2011 in San Juan, Puerto Rico, were analyzed to identify factors associated with HIV testing in the past 12 months (recent testing). RESULTS Overall, 50% of participants were tested recently. In the multivariate analysis, testing recently was associated with having multiple partners in the past 12 months (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] [≥4 vs 1 partner] = 1.5; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.2-2.0), visiting a health care provider in the past 12 months (aPR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.04-1.8), and disclosing male-male attraction/sex to a health care provider (aPR< 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7). CONCLUSIONS Human immunodeficiency virus testing was suboptimal among MSM in San Juan. Strategies to increase HIV testing among MSM may include promoting HIV testing for all sexually active MSM including those with fewer partners, increasing utilization of the healthcare system, and improving patient-provider communication.