Factors Affecting the Presence of Ochratoxin A in Wines

  title={Factors Affecting the Presence of Ochratoxin A in Wines},
  author={Jes{\'u}s Blesa and Jos{\'e} Miguel Soriano and Juan Carlos Molt{\'o} and Jordi Ma{\~n}es},
  journal={Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition},
  pages={473 - 478}
Ochratoxin A (OTA) are synthesized mainly by different species of Aspergillus and Penicillium being its human toxicological effects reflected in different countries due to the consumption of different foods and beverages such as red, white, rose, and special wines. This review presents an overview of the direct (meteorological conditions, grape cultivation, and wine-making techniques) and indirect (latitude, year of production, use of pesticides, presence of spoilage microorganisms, conditions… 
Ochratoxin A in Wines
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What is the source of ochratoxin A in wine?
Ochratoxin A, a Toxic Metabolite produced by Aspergillus ochraceus Wilh.
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According to data, OTA is much more commonly detected in red wines than in rose and white wines and the OTA concentration is remarkably higher than in the last two.
Fungal flora and ochratoxin a production in grapes and musts from france.
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This study showed that OTA is stable in wine for at least 1 year, and the possibility of the loss of the mycotoxin was excluded by the analysis of OTA in contaminated wine during 12 months.
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Refrigeration of grapes during long-term storage is not sufficient in itself in preserving their initial qualities, so contamination of these table grapes withPenicillium species occurs in the vineyard and inside the cooling station where other fruits which are often fungus-contaminated are also kept.
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