Factors Affecting the Presence of Ochratoxin A in Wines

@article{Blesa2006FactorsAT,
  title={Factors Affecting the Presence of Ochratoxin A in Wines},
  author={Jes{\'u}s Blesa and Jos{\'e} Miguel Soriano and Juan Carlos Molt{\'o} and Jordi Ma{\~n}es},
  journal={Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition},
  year={2006},
  volume={46},
  pages={473 - 478}
}
Ochratoxin A (OTA) are synthesized mainly by different species of Aspergillus and Penicillium being its human toxicological effects reflected in different countries due to the consumption of different foods and beverages such as red, white, rose, and special wines. This review presents an overview of the direct (meteorological conditions, grape cultivation, and wine-making techniques) and indirect (latitude, year of production, use of pesticides, presence of spoilage microorganisms, conditions… 
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TLDR
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References

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What is the source of ochratoxin A in wine?
Ochratoxin A, a Toxic Metabolite produced by Aspergillus ochraceus Wilh.
TLDR
This species has also been frequently recovered in low counts from South African cereal and legume crops and has been reported as constituents of the mycoflora characteristic of ‘katsuobushi’ and other fermented fish preparations.
Removal of ochratoxin A in red wines by means of adsorption treatments with commercial fining agents.
TLDR
Potassium caseinate and activated carbon were found to be the best fining agents that could be used to remove OTA in wine and showed the highest specific adsorption capacity.
Ochratoxin A in beverages from Morocco: a preliminary survey
In a preliminary study, samples of Moroccan wines (n = 30), beers (n = 5) and fruit juices (n = 14) were assayed for ochratoxin A (OTA) by HPLC with fluorimetric detection, followed by confirmation
Occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in wines: influence of the type of wine and its geographical origin
TLDR
According to data, OTA is much more commonly detected in red wines than in rose and white wines and the OTA concentration is remarkably higher than in the last two.
Fungal flora and ochratoxin a production in grapes and musts from france.
TLDR
There is a strong correlation between the presence of ochratoxin-producing strains on grapes and OTA in musts and these findings should be connected with the OTA contamination of human blood in these areas and in France.
Contribution to the study of ochratoxin A in Spanish wines
TLDR
This study showed that OTA is stable in wine for at least 1 year, and the possibility of the loss of the mycotoxin was excluded by the analysis of OTA in contaminated wine during 12 months.
Identification of different species ofPenicillium causing deterioration of the Moroccan table grapes during storage
TLDR
Refrigeration of grapes during long-term storage is not sufficient in itself in preserving their initial qualities, so contamination of these table grapes withPenicillium species occurs in the vineyard and inside the cooling station where other fruits which are often fungus-contaminated are also kept.
Mycoflora and ochratoxin‐producing strains of Aspergillus section Nigri in wine grapes in Argentina
Aims: The aims of this work were to evaluate the mycoflora and to identify the species of Aspergillus with the potential to produce ochratoxin A (OA) from different wine grape varieties from Mendoza,
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