Factors Affecting the Geo-effectiveness of Shocks and Sheaths at 1 AU.


We identify all fast-mode forward shocks, whose sheath regions resulted in a moderate (56 cases) or intense (38 cases) geomagnetic storm during 18.5 years from January 1997 to June 2015. We study their main properties, interplanetary causes and geo-effects. We find that half (49/94) such shocks are associated with interacting coronal mass ejections (CMEs… (More)
DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023100


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