1 This study was made possible by a grant from the Michigan Department of Education (MDE), but views and findings expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect those of MDE. The following individuals participated in the design and implementation of this study: Although we cannot identify the names of the schools that participated in this study, we want to thank all the teachers and administrators in these 19 schools. Without their cooperation and support, this study would not have been possible. We would also like to thank Dr. Maenette K. P. Benham and the four anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments. offered very helpful comments and suggestions. i Abstract Why isn't technology used more in schools? Many researchers have been searching for solutions to this persistent puzzle. In this paper, we extend existing research on technology integration and diffusion of innovations by investigating relationships among the long list of factors that have already been identified to be related to school technology uses. In particular, we use the metaphor of an ecosystem to theoretically integrate and organize sets of factors that affect implementation of computer technology. We also hope that this metaphor will help us better understand other educational innovations. We conducted a study of technology uses in 19 schools in four districts. Findings of this study suggest that the ecological perspective can be a powerful analytical framework for understanding technology uses in schools. This perspective points out new directions for research and has significant policy and practical implications for implementing innovations to schools.