Fact-Checking: A Meta-Analysis of What Works and for Whom

  title={Fact-Checking: A Meta-Analysis of What Works and for Whom},
  author={Nathan Walter and Jonathan Cohen and R. Lance Holbert and Yasmin Morag},
  journal={Political Communication},
  pages={350 - 375}
Despite its growing prominence in news coverage and public discourse, there is still considerable ambiguity regarding when and how fact-checking affects beliefs. Informed by theories of motivated reasoning and message design, a meta-analytic review was undertaken to examine the effectiveness of fact-checking in correcting political misinformation (k = 30,N = 20,963). Fact-checking has a significantly positive overall influence on political beliefs (d = 0.29), but the effects gradually weaken… 
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