Facing east: the World ORT Union and the Jewish refugee problem in Europe, 1933–38

  title={Facing east: the World ORT Union and the Jewish refugee problem in Europe, 1933–38},
  author={Alexander Ivanov},
  journal={East European Jewish Affairs},
  pages={369 - 388}
The World Union of Societies for Promotion of Artisanal and Agricultural Work among the Jews (ORT Union) was created in Berlin in 1921 by emigrants from Russia, veterans of the Russian ORT that had been founded in St Petersburg in 1880. By 1933, the ORT Union represented a transnational association of public philanthropic organisations and maintained a large network of professional schools and vocational training courses scattered all over Eastern Europe. After the advent of the Nazis in 1933… 


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