Facilitated Communication and Authorship: A Systematic Review

  title={Facilitated Communication and Authorship: A Systematic Review},
  author={Ralf W. Schlosser and Susan Balandin and Bronwyn Hemsley and Teresa Iacono and Paul Probst and Stephen von Tetzchner},
  journal={Augmentative and Alternative Communication},
  pages={359 - 368}
Abstract Facilitated Communication (FC) is a technique whereby individuals with disabilities and communication impairments allegedly select letters by typing on a keyboard while receiving physical support, emotional encouragement, and other communication supports from facilitators. The validity of FC stands or falls on the question of who is authoring the typed messages – the individual with a disability or the facilitator. The International Society for Augmentative and Alternative… 
Systematic review of facilitated communication 2014–2018 finds no new evidence that messages delivered using facilitated communication are authored by the person with disability
A systematic review of the literature on FC published between 2014 and 2018 found no new studies on authorship and there remains no evidence that FC is a valid form of communication for individuals with severe communication disabilities.
Evidence of Authorship on Messages in Facilitated Communication: A Case Report Using Accelerometry
A 17-year-old boy diagnosed with congenital deafness, ASD, and developmental delay, and his facilitator, were equipped with small accelerometers fixed on their index finger, aimed at transforming index acceleration along the three spatial axes into electric signals.
A systematic review of the barriers and facilitators to the provision and use of low-tech and unaided AAC systems for people with complex communication needs and their families
The current review aimed to synthesize the barriers and facilitators to the provision and use of low-tech and unaided AAC systems, which may contribute to the inadequate use of these systems by people with complex communication needs.
Perspective: Presuming Autistic Communication Competence and Reframing Facilitated Communication
Debate surrounding the validity of the method of supported typing known as facilitated communication (FC) has been continuous since its inception in the 1990s. Views are polarized on whether FC can
Augmentative and Alternative Communication for Children with Intellectual and Developmental Disability: A Mega-Review of the Literature
A mega-review of literature reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses on interventions using aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) interventions for children with intellectual and developmental disabilities from 2000 to mid-2020 was conducted.
Is speech and language therapy effective at improving the communication of adults with intellectual disabilities?: A systematic review.
BACKGROUND A significant proportion of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) experience speech, language and communication difficulties which are associated with poor physical and mental health
Parent-mediated communication interventions for improving the communication skills of preschool children with non-progressive motor disorders.
There is only limited, very low quality evidence that parent-mediated communication interventions may be associated with improvements in interaction between mothers and their preschool children who have motor disorders.
The role of augmentative and alternative communication for children with autism: current status and future trends
There is growing evidence for the potential benefits of AAC for children with autism, but there is a need for more well-designed studies and broader, targeted outcomes.
Standards of Proof
TASH’s historic commitment to advocacy and science has enabled it to be a trusted voice for people with severe disabilities and their families. We review recent developments in the controversy over
Stolen voices: Facilitated communication is an abuse of human rights
Abstract Despite the overwhelming research evidence discrediting the validity of Facilitated Communication (FC), Lilienfeld, Marshall, Todd and Shane (2015) have demonstrated that the use of FC is


How Teachers Confirm the Authorship of Facilitated Communication: A Portfolio Approach
Facilitated communication has been characterized as an alternative to speech that involves providing physical and emotional support to individuals with severe communication impairments as they type
Facilitated communication and autistic children: the problem of authorship
This paper explores the authorship of the written production of children with autism who need to be physically and emotionally supported by a competent interlocutor in order to communicate.
Facilitated Communication: Results from a Number of Recently Published Evaluations
Facilitated Communication (FC) is a said by its proponents to allow people thought previously to have little or no expressive language to communicate in sometimes sophisticated ways about themselves,
Brief report: A controlled evaluation of facilitated communication using open-ended and fill-in questions
  • M. Cabay
  • Psychology
    Journal of autism and developmental disorders
  • 1994
This investigation attempts to determine if responses produced by children with autism using facilitated communication techniques are actually authentic communications from the autistic child or
An experiential account of facilitated communication
Despite overwhelming evidence negating the validity of Facilitated Communication (FC), this thoroughly discredited technique continues to be promoted and practiced, with sadly tragic consequences.
Brief report: Facilitator-suggested conversational evaluation of facilitated communication
All studies used essentially the same methodology in which the subject, but not the facilitator, was presented with a stimulus that required a single-word or short-answer response.
Multiple method validation study of facilitated communication: II. Individual differences and subgroup results
An “abdication” pattern of responding was found for some students, in which high performance observed with independent responding was lessened on trials when FC was introduced, suggesting these students may become more passive communicators when FC is used.
Authorship in Facilitated Communication: An Analysis of 11 Cases
Analysis of the authorship of messages produced through facilitated communication for all users of FC in two comprehensive schools in a small city in Finland revealed a large degree of facilitator influence on the content of the messages produced.
An experimental analysis of facilitated communication.
Evaluated the authorship of messages produced through facilitated communication by 7 adults with moderate or severe mental retardation and their facilitators showed that the clients typed the correct answer only when the facilitator had access to the same information.
Hidden communicative competence: Case study evidence using eye-tracking and video analysis
The eye-tracking data present a challenge to traditional ‘facilitator influence’ accounts of authorship, and are consistent with the proposition that this FC user does indeed author the sophisticated texts attributed to him.