Facilitated Communication and Authorship: A Systematic Review

@article{Schlosser2014FacilitatedCA,
  title={Facilitated Communication and Authorship: A Systematic Review},
  author={Ralf W. Schlosser and Susan Balandin and Bronwyn Hemsley and Teresa Iacono and Paul Probst and Stephen von Tetzchner},
  journal={Augmentative and Alternative Communication},
  year={2014},
  volume={30},
  pages={359 - 368}
}
Abstract Facilitated Communication (FC) is a technique whereby individuals with disabilities and communication impairments allegedly select letters by typing on a keyboard while receiving physical support, emotional encouragement, and other communication supports from facilitators. The validity of FC stands or falls on the question of who is authoring the typed messages – the individual with a disability or the facilitator. The International Society for Augmentative and Alternative… 
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References

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How Teachers Confirm the Authorship of Facilitated Communication: A Portfolio Approach
Facilitated communication has been characterized as an alternative to speech that involves providing physical and emotional support to individuals with severe communication impairments as they type
Facilitated communication and autistic children: the problem of authorship
This paper explores the authorship of the written production of children with autism who need to be physically and emotionally supported by a competent interlocutor in order to communicate.
Facilitated Communication: Results from a Number of Recently Published Evaluations
Facilitated Communication (FC) is a said by its proponents to allow people thought previously to have little or no expressive language to communicate in sometimes sophisticated ways about themselves,
Brief report: A controlled evaluation of facilitated communication using open-ended and fill-in questions
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This investigation attempts to determine if responses produced by children with autism using facilitated communication techniques are actually authentic communications from the autistic child or
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Despite overwhelming evidence negating the validity of Facilitated Communication (FC), this thoroughly discredited technique continues to be promoted and practiced, with sadly tragic consequences.
Brief report: Facilitator-suggested conversational evaluation of facilitated communication
TLDR
All studies used essentially the same methodology in which the subject, but not the facilitator, was presented with a stimulus that required a single-word or short-answer response.
Multiple method validation study of facilitated communication: II. Individual differences and subgroup results
TLDR
An “abdication” pattern of responding was found for some students, in which high performance observed with independent responding was lessened on trials when FC was introduced, suggesting these students may become more passive communicators when FC is used.
Authorship in Facilitated Communication: An Analysis of 11 Cases
TLDR
Analysis of the authorship of messages produced through facilitated communication for all users of FC in two comprehensive schools in a small city in Finland revealed a large degree of facilitator influence on the content of the messages produced.
An experimental analysis of facilitated communication.
TLDR
Evaluated the authorship of messages produced through facilitated communication by 7 adults with moderate or severe mental retardation and their facilitators showed that the clients typed the correct answer only when the facilitator had access to the same information.
Hidden communicative competence: Case study evidence using eye-tracking and video analysis
TLDR
The eye-tracking data present a challenge to traditional ‘facilitator influence’ accounts of authorship, and are consistent with the proposition that this FC user does indeed author the sophisticated texts attributed to him.
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