Facile synthesis of thermal- and photostable titania with paramagnetic oxygen vacancies for visible-light photocatalysis.

Abstract

A novel dopant-free TiO(2) photocatalyst (V(o)(.)-TiO(2)), which is self-modified by a large number of paramagnetic (single-electron-trapped) oxygen vacancies, was prepared by calcining a mixture of a porous amorphous TiO(2) precursor, imidazole, and hydrochloric acid at elevated temperature (450 °C) in air. Control experiments demonstrate that the porous TiO(2) precursor, imidazole, and hydrochloric acid are all necessary for the formation of V(o)(.)-TiO(2). Although the synthesis of V(o)(.)-TiO(2) originates from such a multicomponent system, this synthetic approach is facile, controllable, and reproducible. X-ray diffraction, XPS, and EPR spectroscopy reveal that the V(o)(.)-TiO(2) material with a high crystallinity embodies a mass of paramagnetic oxygen vacancies, and is free of other dopant species such as nitrogen and carbon. UV/Vis diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical measurement demonstrate that V(o)(.)-TiO(2) is a stable visible-light-responsive material with photogenerated charge separation efficiency higher than N-TiO(2) and P25 under visible-light irradiation. The V(o)(.)-TiO(2) material exhibits not only satisfactory thermal- and photostability, but also superior photocatalytic activity for H(2) evolution (115 μmol h(-1) g(-1)) from water with methanol as sacrificial reagent under visible light (λ>400 nm) irradiation. Furthermore, the effects of reaction temperature, ratio of starting materials (imidazole:TiO(2) precursor) and calcination time on the photocatalytic activity and the microstructure of V(o)(.)-TiO(2) were elucidated.

DOI: 10.1002/chem.201202833

Cite this paper

@article{Zou2013FacileSO, title={Facile synthesis of thermal- and photostable titania with paramagnetic oxygen vacancies for visible-light photocatalysis.}, author={Xiaoxin Zou and Jikai Liu and Juan Su and Fan Zuo and Jiesheng Chen and Pingyun Feng}, journal={Chemistry}, year={2013}, volume={19 8}, pages={2866-73} }