Facial shape and judgements of female attractiveness

  title={Facial shape and judgements of female attractiveness},
  author={David Ian Perrett and Keith A. May and S. Yoshikawa},
THE finding that photographic1–4 and digital5 composites (blends) of faces are considered to be attractive has led to the claim that attractiveness is averageness5. This would encourage stabilizing selection, favouring phenotypes with an average facial structure5. The 'averageness hypothesis' would account for the low distinctive-ness of attractive faces6 but is difficult to reconcile with the finding that some facial measurements correlate with attractiveness7,8. An average face shape is… 
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Examples of attractive composite faces from different races, generated using the same computerized morphing systems reported in my previous article, are introduced and are regarded as good examples for understanding prior and current configurations, balance, harmony, or the secret of attractive faces of different races.
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The authors systematically test the averageness hypothesis in 5 experiments using both rating and visual adaptation paradigms and conclusively support the proposal that there are specific nonaverage characteristics that are particularly attractive.
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Article Commentary: Averaged Faces Are Attractive, but Very Attractive Faces Are Not Average
In a recent article, Langlois and Roggman (1990) argue that “attractive faces are only average” and support this theory with composite faces produced by digitized image processing. While we agree
What do women want? Facialmetric assessment of multiple motives in the perception of male facial physical attractiveness.
Three quasi-experiments demonstrated that men who possessed the neotenous features of large eyes, the mature features of prominent cheekbones and a large chin, the expressive feature of a big smile, and high-status clothing were seen as more attractive than other men.
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Two quasi-experiments investigated the relation between specific adult female facial features and the attraction, attribution, and altruistic responses of adult males. Precise measurements were
Attractive Faces Are Only Average
Scientists and philosophers have searched for centuries for a parsimonious answer to the question of what constitutes beauty. We approached this problem from both an evolutionary and
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There were essentially no differences in perceived variation for cross- vs. within-racial judgments, but there were differences in the criteria used to define attractiveness.
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A computer graphic method for extracting a natural image of an individual's facial prototype, or average appearance, from a number of different images of that individual is presented. The process
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It is reported that mechanisms concerned with signal recognition possess inevitable biases in response that act as important agents of selection on signal form, and the existence of such biases may be sufficient to explain the evolution of exaggerated male secondary sexual traits, and elaborate signals in general.
Female swallow preference for symmetrical male sexual ornaments
Male swallows with elongated, symmetric tails mated earlier, and enjoyed larger annual reproductive success than did males with shortened tails and increased asymmetry, which suggests that females in their mate choice use ornament asymmetry and size as reliable indicators of male quality.
Female choice selects for extreme tail length in a widowbird
It is reported here that males in which the tail was experimentally elongated showed higher mating success than males having normal or reduced tails: males with shortened tails held their territories as long as did other males.