Facial expressions and the regulation of emotions.

@article{Izard1990FacialEA,
  title={Facial expressions and the regulation of emotions.},
  author={Carroll E. Izard},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  year={1990},
  volume={58 3},
  pages={
          487-98
        }
}
  • C. Izard
  • Published 1 March 1990
  • Psychology
  • Journal of personality and social psychology
In the two decades since contemporary psychologists produced strong evidence confirming Darwin's century-old hypothesis of the innateness and universality of certain facial expressions of emotions, research on expressive behavior has become well established in developmental, social, and personality psychology and in psychophysiology. There are also signs of increased interest in emotions in clinical psychology and the neurosciences. Despite the success of the work on emotion expression and the… 
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  • Psychology
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  • 2007
TLDR
The successive historic contributions to the question of the determinants of the authors' own emotional experience are examined: from James-Lange bodily changes to cognitive appraisal theories, also relating the major role that the fundamental emotions theory attributed to facial expressions.
Emotional experience and perception in the absence of facial feedback
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The role of facial expressions in the determination of emotion is examined by studying a patient suffering from a bilateral facial paralysis, and despite her inability to convey emotions through facial expressions, F.P. reported normal emotional experience.
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References

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Facial expression and emotional stimuli were varied orthogonally in a 3 x 4 factorial design in order to test whether facial expression is necessary or sufficient to influence emotional experience.
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TLDR
The theory of emotional expression, developed by Israel Waynbaum, hypothesizes the subjective experience of emotions as following facial expression rather than preceding it, and answers Darwin's question of why different muscles contract or relax in different emotions better than Darwin's own theory.
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It was shown that the combined method of diagnosing human emotional state is the most effective one because changes in heart rate reveal emotional stress and contraction of specific groups of muscles helps to identify the nature of the emotion; joy, anger, fear or sadness.
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The facial feedback hypothesis holds that emotional experiences are derived from facial expressions. Ten published studies indicating that manipulated facial expressions do produce corresponding
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TLDR
Higher levels of facial expressiveness were accompanied by higher levels of autonomic activity and subjective reports of affective experience, and this relationship was obtained in comparisons among experimental conditions as well as correlational analyses within conditions.
The role of facial response in the experience of emotion: more methodological problems and a meta-analysis.
  • D. Matsumoto
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1987
TLDR
The effect of facial feedback on emotional experience is less than convincing and the effect size of facial behavior on self-reported mood is actually only of small to moderate value and is most likely an inflated estimate.
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TLDR
The findings support theories of emotion that assume that expressive responses serve a self-regulatory as well as a social-communicative function, and suggest that the self-regulation is mediated neurally, rather than via a process of self-attribution.
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TLDR
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Pan-Cultural Elements in Facial Displays of Emotion
Observers in both literate and preliterate cultures chose the predicted emotion for photographs of the face, although agreement was higher in the literate samples. These findings suggest that the
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