Facial expressions and the regulation of emotions.

  title={Facial expressions and the regulation of emotions.},
  author={Carroll E. Izard},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  volume={58 3},
  • C. Izard
  • Published 1 March 1990
  • Psychology
  • Journal of personality and social psychology
In the two decades since contemporary psychologists produced strong evidence confirming Darwin's century-old hypothesis of the innateness and universality of certain facial expressions of emotions, research on expressive behavior has become well established in developmental, social, and personality psychology and in psychophysiology. There are also signs of increased interest in emotions in clinical psychology and the neurosciences. Despite the success of the work on emotion expression and the… 
Consciousness, Volition, and the Neuropsychology of Facial Expressions of Emotion
The facial musculature and the neural paths thought to innervate it are reviewed, as well as previous attempts at understanding the neural control of facial expressions of emotion, focusing on the voluntary-involuntary dichotomy and studies of hemispheric specialization.
Emotional expression and feeling in schizophrenia: effects of specific expressive behaviors on emotional experiences.
Facial expressions and bodily postures were manipulated in a sample of normals to investigate the relationship between emotional expression and experience in schizophrenia by manipulating expressive behaviors directly and then assessing subsequent emotional feelings.
Developmental changes in facial expressions of emotions in the strange situation during the second year of life.
The authors discuss alternative interpretations of the findings in terms of changes in reactivity/arousability and the emerging capacity for self-regulation.
The Substrates and Functions of Emotion Feelings
Most psychologists identify James's theory of emotion with the idea that we experience emotion because we act, for example, feel angry because we strike. Yet, the idea about emotions that was most
Babies facial expressions of emotion: importance and evidences
The emotional expressions of babies have provoked increasing interest, reflecting the importance attributed to their abilities to deal with emotions. Babies’ capacity to produce and to recognize
The power of faces: A review of John T. Lanzetta's research on facial expression and emotion
Provides a comprehensive review of John T. Lanzetta's research program on facial expression and emotion. After reviewing the study that initiated this research program (Lanzetta & Kleck, 1970), the
Is there universal recognition of emotion from facial expression? A review of the cross-cultural studies.
Facial expressions and emotion labels are probably associated, but the association may vary with culture and is loose enough to be consistent with various alternative accounts, 8 of which are discussed.
The effect of laughter expression modulation on emotional experience in 4 to 10 year-old children
Abstract According to the literature, in adulthood, facial expression control unconsciously generates a congruent change in emotional experience (facial feedback). Although only a few studies have
[Consciousness and emotion].
  • S. Carton
  • Psychology
    Psychologie & neuropsychiatrie du vieillissement
  • 2007
The successive historic contributions to the question of the determinants of the authors' own emotional experience are examined: from James-Lange bodily changes to cognitive appraisal theories, also relating the major role that the fundamental emotions theory attributed to facial expressions.
Emotional experience and perception in the absence of facial feedback
The role of facial expressions in the determination of emotion is examined by studying a patient suffering from a bilateral facial paralysis, and despite her inability to convey emotions through facial expressions, F.P. reported normal emotional experience.


The role of facial response in the experience of emotion.
Facial expression and emotional stimuli were varied orthogonally in a 3 x 4 factorial design in order to test whether facial expression is necessary or sufficient to influence emotional experience.
Emotion and facial efference: a theory reclaimed.
The theory of emotional expression, developed by Israel Waynbaum, hypothesizes the subjective experience of emotions as following facial expression rather than preceding it, and answers Darwin's question of why different muscles contract or relax in different emotions better than Darwin's own theory.
Comparative analysis of mimical and autonomic components of man's emotional state.
It was shown that the combined method of diagnosing human emotional state is the most effective one because changes in heart rate reveal emotional stress and contraction of specific groups of muscles helps to identify the nature of the emotion; joy, anger, fear or sadness.
The real role of facial response in the experience of emotion: A reply to Tourangeau and Ellsworth, and others.
The facial feedback hypothesis holds that emotional experiences are derived from facial expressions. Ten published studies indicating that manipulated facial expressions do produce corresponding
Facial, autonomic, and subjective components of emotion: the facial feedback hypothesis versus externalizer-internalizer distinction.
Higher levels of facial expressiveness were accompanied by higher levels of autonomic activity and subjective reports of affective experience, and this relationship was obtained in comparisons among experimental conditions as well as correlational analyses within conditions.
The role of facial response in the experience of emotion: more methodological problems and a meta-analysis.
  • D. Matsumoto
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1987
The effect of facial feedback on emotional experience is less than convincing and the effect size of facial behavior on self-reported mood is actually only of small to moderate value and is most likely an inflated estimate.
Effects of nonverbal dissimulation on emotional experience and autonomic arousal.
The findings support theories of emotion that assume that expressive responses serve a self-regulatory as well as a social-communicative function, and suggest that the self-regulation is mediated neurally, rather than via a process of self-attribution.
Laterlized facial muscle response to positive and negative emotional stimuli.
The results are consistent with the hypothesized specialization of the left and right cerebral hemispheres for the mediation of positive and negative emotions, respectively.
Pan-Cultural Elements in Facial Displays of Emotion
Observers in both literate and preliterate cultures chose the predicted emotion for photographs of the face, although agreement was higher in the literate samples. These findings suggest that the